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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The word argument can be used to designate a dispute or a fight, or it can be used more technically. The focus of this article is on understanding an argument as a collection of truth-bearers (that is, the things that bear truth and falsity, or are true and false) some of which are offered as reasons for one of them, the conclusion. This article takes propositions rather than sentences or statements or utterances to be the primary truth bearers. The reasons offered within the argument are called premises, and the proposition that the premises are offered for is called the conclusion.

This sense of argument diverges not only from the Teenage Drug Abuse above sense of a dispute or fight but also from the formal logicians sense according to which an argument is merely a list of statements, one of which is douglass escaping slavery designated as the conclusion and Teenage Drug, the rest of which are designated as premises regardless of whether the premises are offered as reasons for believing the conclusion. Arguments, as understood in this article, are the subject of south china summary study in critical thinking and informal logic courses in which students usually learn, among other things, how to identify, reconstruct, and evaluate arguments given outside the classroom. Arguments, in this sense, are typically distinguished from both implications and inferences. In asserting that a proposition P implies proposition Q, one does not thereby offer P as a reason for Q. The proposition frogs are mammals implies that frogs are not reptiles , but it is problematic to offer the Drug Abuse Essay former as a reason for believing the latter. Schedule Be Extended? Essay? If an arguer offers an Teenage Drug Abuse Essay argument in Our School Schedule Be Extended? order to Teenage Essay, persuade an salt mouthwash audience that the Teenage Abuse Essay conclusion is true, then it is plausible to of Niyi, think that the Drug arguer is inviting the audience to make an inference from the arguments premises to its conclusion. The Poems Of Niyi? However, an inference is Teenage Drug Abuse a form of reasoning, and salt mouthwash, as such it is distinct from an argument in the sense of Teenage Essay a collection of propositions (some of which are offered as reasons for the conclusion). One might plausibly think that a person S infers Q from Should Be Extended? Essay, P just in case S comes to believe Q because S believes that P is true and because S believes that the truth of Teenage P justifies belief that Q. But this movement of mind from P to Parents in the Article, Parents-Stop Hovering, H. Haenicke, Q is something different from the argument composed of just P and Q. The characterization of argument in the first paragraph requires development since there are forms of Teenage Drug reasoning such as explanations which are not typically regarded as arguments even though (explanatory) reasons are offered for a proposition.

Two principal approaches to fine-tuning this first-step characterization of arguments are what may be called the structural and in healthcare, pragmatic approaches. The pragmatic approach is motivated by the view that the Teenage Abuse Essay nature of an argument cannot be completely captured in terms of its structure. In what follows, each approach is described, and criticism is briefly entertained. Along the No Hovering Parents Helicopter Hovering, Diether way, distinctive features of arguments are highlighted that seemingly must be accounted for by any plausible characterization. The classification of arguments as deductive, inductive, and conductive is discussed in section 3. 1. The Structural Approach to Characterizing Arguments. Not any group of propositions qualifies as an argument. The starting point for structural approaches is the Abuse thesis that the premises of an argument are reasons offered in support of its conclusion (for example, Govier 2010, p.1, Bassham, G., W. Parents-Stop Hovering, H. Haenicke? Irwin, H. Nardone, J. Wallace 2005, p.30, Copi and Drug Essay, Cohen 2005, p.7; for discussion, see Johnson 2000, p.146ff ). Accordingly, a collection of Should Schedule Be Extended? Essay propositions lacks the structure of an argument unless there is a reasoner who puts forward some as reasons in support of one of them. Letting P 1 , P 2 , P 3 , , and C range over propositions and R over reasoners, a structural characterization of argument takes the following form. A collection of propositions, P 1 , , P n , C, is an argument if and only if there is Teenage Drug Essay a reasoner R who puts forward the P i as reasons in support of C. The structure of an argument is not a function of the syntactic and semantic features of the propositions that compose it.

Rather, it is imposed on these propositions by escaping slavery, the intentions of a reasoner to use some as support for one of them. Typically in Drug Abuse presenting an argument, a reasoner will use expressions to flag the intended structural components of her argument. Salt Mouthwash? Typical premise indicators include: because, since, for, and as; typical conclusion indicators include therefore, thus, hence, and so. Note well: these expressions do not always function in these ways, and Drug, so their mere use does not necessitate the presence of an argument. Different accounts of the nature of the intended support offered by the premises for the conclusion in an argument generate different structural characterizations of arguments (for discussion see Hitchcock 2007). Plausibly, if a reasoner R puts forward premises in support of a conclusion C, then (i)-(iii) obtain. (i) The premises represent Rs reasons for believing that the of Niyi Essay conclusion is true and R thinks that her belief in the truth of the premises is justified. (ii) R believes that the premises make C more probable than not. (iii) (a) R believes that the premises are independent of C ( that is, R thinks that her reasons for the premises do not include belief that C is Teenage true), and The Poems, (b) R believes that the premises are relevant to establishing that C is Teenage Abuse true. If we judge that a reasoner R presents an argument as defined above, then by the lights of (i)-(iii) we believe that R believes that the premises justify belief in the truth of the conclusion. In what immediately follows, examples are given to explicate (i)-(iii). A: John is an only child. B: John is not an only child; he said that Mary is his sister. If B presents an argument, then the following obtain. (i) B believes that the premise ( that is, Mary is salt mouthwash Johns sister ) is true, B thinks this belief is justified, and the premise is Bs reason for maintaining the conclusion. (ii) B believes that John said that Mary is Abuse his sister makes it more likely than not that John is not an only child , and (iii) B thinks that that John said that Mary is his sister is both independent of the proposition that Mary is Johns sister and relevant to south sea dispute summary, confirming it.

A: The Democrats and Republicans dont seem willing to compromise. B: If the Democrats and Republicans are not willing to compromise, then the U.S. will go over the fiscal cliff. Bs assertion of a conditional does not require that B believe either the antecedent or consequent. Therefore, it is unlikely that B puts forward the Democrats and Republicans are not willing to compromise as a reason in support of the Teenage Abuse Essay U.S. will go over the fiscal cliff , because it is unlikely that B believes either proposition. Hence, it is unlikely that Bs response to A has the structure of an argument, because (i) is not satisfied. A: Doctor B, what is the reason for my uncles muscular weakness? B: The results of the test are in. Even though few syphilis patients get paresis, we suspect that the reason for your uncles paresis is the syphilis he suffered from 10 years ago. Dr. B offers reasons that explain why As uncle has paresis.

It is unreasonable to think that B believes that the uncles being a syphilis victim makes it more likely than not that he has paresis, since B admits that having syphilis does not make it more likely than not that someone has (or will have) paresis. So, Bs response does not contain an argument, because (ii) is not satisfied. A: I dont think that Bill will be at the party tonight. B: Bill will be at the party, because Bill will be at the party. Suppose that B believes that Bill will be at professionalism in healthcare the party. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay? Trivially, the truth of this proposition makes it more likely than not that he will be at the party.

Nevertheless, B is not presenting an The Poems Osundare argument. Bs response does not have the structure of an argument, because (iiia) is not satisfied. Clearly, B does not offer a reason for Bill will be at the party that is independent of this. Perhaps, Bs response is intended to Teenage Essay, communicate her confidence that Bill will be at the party. By (iiia), a reasoner R puts forward [1] Sasha Obama has a sibling in support of [2] Sasha is not an only child only if Rs reasons for believing [1] do not include Rs belief that [2] is true. If R puts forward [1] in support of [2] and, say, erroneously believes that the former is independent of the latter, then Rs argument would be defective by virtue of being circular.

Regarding (iiib), that Obama is U.S. President entails that the earth is the third planet from the sun or it isnt , but it is plausible to suppose that the former does not support the Our School Be Extended? latter because it is irrelevant to showing that the Drug earth is the third planet from the sun or it isnt is true. Premises offered in support of a conclusion are either linked or convergent. This difference marks a structural distinction between arguments. [1] Tom is happy only if he is playing guitar. [2] Tom is frederick douglass not playing guitar. Suppose that a reasoner R offers [1] and [2] as reasons in support of [3]. The argument is presented in what is called standard form ; the premises are listed first and a solid line separates them from the conclusion, which is prefaced by Drug Abuse, ? . The Poems Essay? This symbol means therefore.

Premises [1] and [2] are linked because they do not support the conclusion independently of one another, that is, they support the conclusion jointly. Drug Abuse? It is Parents in the Article, Diether unreasonable to think that R offers [1] and [2] individually, as opposed to collectively, as reasons for [3]. The following representation of the argument depicts the linkage of the premises. Combining [1] and [2] with the plus sign and underscoring them indicates that they are linked . The arrow indicates that they are offered in support of [3]. To see a display of convergent premises, consider the following.

[1] Tom said that he didnt go to Samanthas party. [2] No one at Samanthas party saw Tom there. ? [3] Tom did not attend Samanthas party. These premises are con vergent , because each is Teenage Abuse Essay a reason that supports [3] independently of the other. The below diagram represents this. An extended argument is an argument with at least one premise that a reasoner attempts to support explicitly. Extended arguments are more structurally complex than ones that are not extended. Of Niyi Osundare Essay? Consider the following. The keys are either in the kitchen or the bedroom. The keys are not in the kitchen. Essay? I did not find the keys in the kitchen.

So, the keys must be in the bedroom. Lets look there! The argument in Helicopter Parents-Stop Diether standard form may be portrayed as follows: [1] I just searched the Teenage Drug Abuse Essay kitchen and I did not find the keys. ? [2] The keys are not in the kitchen. [3] The keys are either in the kitchen or the bedroom. ? [4] The keys are in the bedroom. Note that although the keys being in the bedroom is a reason for the imperative, Lets look there! (given the desirability of finding the keys), this proposition is not truth apt and so is not a component of the argument. An enthymeme is an Our School Be Extended? argument which is Teenage Drug Essay presented with at least one component that is suppressed.

A: I dont know what to believe regarding the morality of abortion. B: You should believe that abortion is immoral. Youre a Catholic. That B puts forward [1] A is a Catholic in support of [2] A should believe that abortion is immoral suggests that B implicitly puts forward [3] all Catholics should believe that abortion is immoral in salt mouthwash support of [2]. Abuse Essay? Proposition [3] may plausibly be regarded as a suppressed premise of Bs argument. Note that [2] and [3] are linked. A premise that is suppressed is never a reason for a conclusion independent of another explicitly offered for that conclusion. There are two main criticisms of structural characterizations of douglass escaping arguments. One criticism is that they are too weak because they turn non-arguments such as explanations into arguments. A: Why did this metal expand? B: It was heated and all metals expand when heated.

B offers explanatory reasons for the explanandum (what is explained): this metal expanded . It is plausible to see B offering these explanatory reasons in support of the explanandum. The reasons B offers jointly support the truth of the explanandum, and thereby show that the expansion of the metal was to be expected. It is in Teenage Drug Abuse this way that Bs reasons enable A to understand why the metal expanded. The second criticism is that structural characterizations are too strong. No Hovering Parents Helicopter Parents-Stop H. Haenicke? They rule out as arguments what intuitively seem to be arguments. A: Kelly maintains that no explanation is an argument. I dont know what to believe. B: Neither do I. Drug Essay? One reason for her view may be that the primary function of arguments, unlike explanations, is persuasion. But I am not sure that this is the primary function of frederick douglass escaping slavery arguments. We should investigate this further.

B offers a reason, [1] the primary function of arguments, unlike explanations, is persuasion , for the thesis [2] no explanation is an argument . Since B asserts neither [1] nor [2], B does not put forward [1] in support of [2]. Hence, by the above account, Bs reasoning does not qualify as an argument. A contrary view is that arguments can be used in ways other than showing that their conclusions are true. For example, arguments can be constructed for purposes of inquiry and as such can be used to investigate a hypothesis by seeing what reasons might be given to support a given proposition (see Meiland 1989 and Johnson and Blair 2006, p.10). Such arguments are sometimes referred to as exploratory arguments. On this approach, it is plausible to think that B constructs an exploratory argument [exercise for the reader: identify Bs suppressed premise]. Briefly, in defense of the structuralist account of arguments one response to the first criticism is to bite the bullet and follow those who think that at least some explanations qualify as arguments (see Thomas 1986 who argues that all explanations are arguments). Given that there are exploratory arguments, the second criticism motivates either liberalizing the concept of support that premises may provide for a conclusion (so that, for example, B may be understood as offering [1] in Drug Essay support of Should Schedule Be Extended? [2]) or dropping the notion of support all together in Teenage Drug the structural characterization of arguments (for example, a collection of in the Article, H. Haenicke propositions is an argument if and only if a reasoner offers some as reasons for one of Teenage Drug Abuse Essay them. See Sinnott-Armstrong and Fogelin 2010, p.3).

2. The Pragmatic Approach to china summary, Characterizing Arguments. The pragmatic approach is motivated by Teenage Drug Essay, the view that the nature of an argument cannot be completely captured in terms of its structure. In contrast to structural definitions of arguments, pragmatic definitions appeal to the function of No Hovering Article, Diether H. Haenicke arguments. Different accounts of the purposes arguments serve generate different pragmatic definitions of arguments. The following pragmatic definition appeals to the use of arguments as tools of rational persuasion (for definitions of argument that make such an appeal, see Johnson 2000, p. 168; Walton 1996, p. 18ff; Hitchcock 2007, p.105ff) A collection of propositions is an argument if and only if there is a reasoner R who puts forward some of them (the premises) as reasons in support of one of them (the conclusion) in order to rationally persuade an audience of the truth of the conclusion. One advantage of this definition over the previously given structural one is Abuse that it offers an explanation why arguments have the structure they do.

In order to rationally persuade an audience of the truth of a proposition, one must offer reasons in support of that proposition. Should Our School Schedule Be Extended? Essay? The appeal to rational persuasion is necessary to distinguish arguments from other forms of persuasion such as threats. One question that arises is: What obligations does a reasoner incur by virtue of offering supporting reasons for a conclusion in order to rationally persuade an audience of the conclusion? One might think that such a reasoner should be open to criticisms and obligated to Drug Abuse Essay, respond to them persuasively (See Johnson 2000 p.144 et al , for development of this idea). By appealing to the aims that arguments serve, pragmatic definitions highlight the acts of presenting an argument in professionalism in healthcare addition to Teenage Drug, the arguments themselves. The field of argumentation, an interdisciplinary field that includes rhetoric, informal logic, psychology, and cognitive science, highlights acts of presenting arguments and The Poems, their contexts as topics for investigation that inform our understanding of arguments (see Houtlosser 2001 for discussion of the different perspectives of argument offered by different fields). For example, the acts of explaining and arguingin sense highlighted herehave different aims.

Whereas the act of explaining is designed to increase the audiences comprehension, the act of arguing is aimed at enhancing the Teenage Essay acceptability of a standpoint. This difference in aim makes sense of the fact that in presenting an argument the reasoner believes that her standpoint is not yet acceptable to her audience, but in presenting an explanation the reasoner knows or believes that the explanandum is already accepted by Osundare, her audience (See van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992, p.29, and Snoeck Henkemans 2001, p.232). These observations about the acts of Teenage explaining and arguing motivate the above pragmatic definition of an argument and professionalism, suggest that arguments and explanations are distinct things. Teenage Drug Abuse? It is generally accepted that the same line of reasoning can function as an salt mouthwash explanation in one dialogical context and Teenage Abuse, as an argument in another (see Groarke and douglass escaping, Tindale 2004, p. 23ff for an example and discussion). Eemeren van, Grootendorst, and Teenage Abuse Essay, Snoeck Henkemans 2002 delivers a substantive account of how the The Poems Osundare Essay evaluation of various types of arguments turns on considerations pertaining to the dialogical contexts within which they are presented and discussed. Note that, since the Teenage Drug pragmatic definition appeals to the structure of The Poems Osundare propositions in characterizing arguments, it inherits the criticisms of structural definitions. In addition, the question arises whether it captures the variety of purposes arguments may serve. It has been urged that arguments can aim at engendering any one of a full range of attitudes towards their conclusions (for example, Pinto 1991). For example, a reasoner can offer premises for Teenage Drug Abuse Essay a conclusion C in order to get her audience to withhold assent from C, suspect that C is Should true, believe that is merely possible that C is true, or to be afraid that C is true.

The thought here is that these are alternatives to convincing an audience of the truth of C. A proponent of a pragmatic definition of argument may grant that there are uses of arguments not accounted for by her definition, and propose that the Drug Abuse Essay definition is stipulative. But then a case needs to be made why theorizing about Hovering, arguments from a pragmatic approach should be anchored to Drug Abuse Essay, such a definition when it does not reflect all legitimate uses of arguments. Another line of south summary criticism of the pragmatic approach is its rejecting that arguments themselves have a function (Goodwin 2007) and arguing that the function of persuasion should be assigned to the dialogical contexts in which arguments take place (Doury 2011). 3. Deductive, Inductive, and Conductive Arguments. Arguments are commonly classified as deductive or inductive (for example, Copi, I. and C. Cohen 2005, Sinnott-Armstrong and Teenage Drug, Fogelin 2010). Should Our School Schedule Essay? A deductive argument is an argument that an arguer puts forward as valid. For a valid argument, it is not possible for the premises to be true with the conclusion false. That is, necessarily if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true. Thus we may say that the truth of the premises in Teenage Essay a valid argument guarantees that the conclusion is Helicopter Parents-Stop H. Haenicke also true. The following is an example of a valid argument: Tom is happy only if the Tigers win , the Tigers lost; therefore, Tom is definitely not happy. A step-by-step derivation of the Abuse Essay conclusion of a valid argument from in healthcare, its premises is Teenage Drug Abuse called a proof . In the context of a proof, the given premises of an argument may be viewed as initial premises.

The propositions produced at the steps leading to the conclusion are called derived premises. Professionalism? Each step in the derivation is justified by a principle of Teenage Drug Abuse Essay inference. Whether the salt mouthwash derived premises are components of a valid argument is a difficult question that is beyond the scope of this article. An inductive argument is an argument that an arguer puts forward as inductively strong . In an inductive argument, the Teenage Drug Essay premises are intended only to be so strong that, if they were true, then it would be unlikely , although possible, that the conclusion is false. Salt Mouthwash? If the truth of the premises makes it unlikely (but not impossible) that the conclusion is false, then we may say that the Drug Abuse Essay argument is inductively strong. The following is an example of an inductively strong argument: 97% of the Republicans in town Z voted for McX, Jones is a Republican in town Z; therefore, Jones voted for McX . In an Schedule Be Extended? Essay argument like this, an arguer often will conclude Jones probably voted for McX instead of Jones voted for McX, because they are signaling with the Teenage Essay word probably that they intend to professionalism in healthcare, present an argument that is inductively strong but not valid. In order to evaluate an Teenage Drug Abuse Essay argument it is important to determine whether or not it is deductive or inductive. It is in healthcare inappropriate to criticize an inductively strong argument for being invalid. Based on the above characterizations, whether an argument is deductive or inductive turns on Drug Abuse Essay whether the arguer intends the argument to be valid or merely inductively strong, respectively. Sometimes the presence of certain expressions such as definitely and probably in the above two arguments indicate the relevant intensions of the arguer.

Charity dictates that an invalid argument which is inductively strong be evaluated as an inductive argument unless there is clear evidence to the contrary. Conductive arguments have been put forward as a third category of arguments (for example, Govier 2010). A conductive argument is an argument whose premises are convergent; the premises count separately in frederick escaping slavery support of the conclusion. If one or more premises were removed from the argument, the Drug Abuse degree of support offered by the remaining premises would stay the same. The previously given example of an argument with convergent premises is a conductive argument. Professionalism In Healthcare? The following is another example of a conductive argument. It most likely wont rain tomorrow. The sky is red tonight. Also, the Abuse Essay weather channel reported a 30% chance of rain for tomorrow.

The primary rationale for china sea dispute summary distinguishing conductive arguments from deductive and inductive ones is as follows. First, the Teenage Abuse premises of Our School Schedule conductive arguments are always convergent, but the premises of deductive and Abuse Essay, inductive arguments are never convergent. Second, the evaluation of arguments with convergent premises requires not only that each premise be evaluated individually as support for the conclusion, but also the degree to which the premises support the conclusion collectively must be determined. This second consideration mitigates against treating conductive arguments merely as a collection of subarguments, each of which is deductive or inductive. The basic idea is that the support that the convergent premises taken together provide the conclusion must be considered in the evaluation of a conductive argument. With respect to the above conductive argument, the The Poems Osundare Essay sky is red tonight and the weather channel reported a 30% chance of rain for tomorrow are offered together as (convergent) reasons for It most likely wont rain tomorrow . Perhaps, collectively, but not individually, these reasons would persuade an addressee that it most likely wont rain tomorrow. A group of propositions constitutes an argument only if some are offered as reasons for Drug Essay one of them. Two approaches to identifying the definitive characteristics of arguments are the structural and frederick escaping slavery, pragmatic approaches. On both approaches, whether an act of offering reasons for a proposition P yields an argument depends on Drug what the reasoner believes regarding both the truth of the professionalism reasons and the relationship between the reasons and P. Drug Abuse? A typical use of an argument is to rationally persuade its audience of the truth of the conclusion. To be effective in salt mouthwash realizing this aim, the reasoner must think that there is real potential in the relevant context for her audience to be rationally persuaded of the conclusion by Abuse Essay, means of the offered premises.

What, exactly, this presupposes about the audience depends on what the argument is and the context in which it is frederick douglass slavery given. An argument may be classified as deductive, inductive, or conductive. Teenage? Its classification into one of these categories is a prerequisite for its proper evaluation.

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The Natural Law Tradition in Teenage Drug Abuse, Ethics. ‘Natural law theory’ is salt mouthwash a label that has been applied to theories of ethics, theories of politics, theories of civil law, and theories of religious morality. We will be concerned only Drug Abuse, with natural law theories of ethics: while such views arguably have some interesting implications for law, politics, and religious morality, these implications will not be our focus here. This article has two central objectives. First, it aims to identify the defining features of natural law moral theory. Second, it aims to identify some of the main theoretical options that natural law theorists face in formulating a precise view within the constraints set by these defining features and some of the difficulties for each of Our School Schedule Essay these options. It will not, however, attempt to Teenage Abuse recount the history of the development of natural law thought. (For a very helpful detailed history of natural law thought up to the beginning of the modern period, see Crowe 1977.

For a very helpful detailed history of natural law thought in the modern period, see Haakonssen 1996. Of Niyi Essay? For an article-length recap of the Essay, entire history of natural law thought, see Haakonssen 1992.) 1. In Healthcare? Key Features of Natural Law Theories. Even though we have already confined ‘natural law theory’ to its use as a term that marks off a certain class of ethical theories, we still have a confusing variety of meanings to contend with. Some writers use the term with such a broad meaning that any moral theory that is a version of moral realism that is, any moral theory that holds that some positive moral claims are literally true (for this conception of moral realism, see Sayre-McCord 1988) counts as a natural law view. Some use it so narrowly that no moral theory that is not grounded in a very specific form of Aristotelian teleology could count as a natural law view. Essay? It might be thought that there is nothing that can be done to begin a discussion of natural law theory in ethics other than to stipulate a meaning for Osundare Essay ‘natural law theory’ and to Teenage Abuse proceed from there. But there is a better way of douglass slavery proceeding, one that takes as its starting point the central role that the moral theorizing of Thomas Aquinas plays in the natural law tradition. If any moral theory is a theory of natural law, it is Aquinas's. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay? (Every introductory ethics anthology that includes material on natural law theory includes material by No Hovering Parents Helicopter Parents-Stop H. Haenicke, or about Aquinas; every encyclopedia article on natural law thought refers to Aquinas.) It would seem sensible, then, to take Aquinas's natural law theory as the central case of a natural law position: of theories that exhibit all of the key features of Aquinas's natural law view we can say that they are clearly natural law theories; of theories that exhibit few of Drug Essay them we can say that they are clearly not natural law theories; and of theories that exhibit many but not all of them we can say that they are in the neighborhood of the natural law view but nonetheless must be viewed as at douglass most deviant cases of that position.

There remain, no doubt, questions about Teenage Essay how we determine what are to count as the key features of Aquinas's position. But we may take as the key features those theses about natural law that structure his overall moral view and which provide the basis for other theses about the natural law that he affirms. For Aquinas, there are two key features of the natural law, features the acknowledgment of which structures his discussion of the natural law at Question 94 of the Prima Secundae of the Summa Theologiae . Our School Schedule Be Extended?? The first is Drug Essay that, when we focus on God's role as the Our School Schedule Be Extended? Essay, giver of the natural law, the natural law is Teenage Abuse just one aspect of in the Parents-Stop divine providence; and so the theory of Drug Essay natural law is from that perspective just one part among others of the theory of divine providence. The second is that, when we focus on the human's role as recipient of the natural law, the natural law constitutes the principles of practical rationality, those principles by which human action is to be judged as reasonable or unreasonable; and so the theory of natural law is from that perspective the preeminent part of the theory of practical rationality. 1.1 Natural law and divine providence.

While our main focus will be on the status of the No Hovering in the Article,, natural law as constituting the principles of practical rationality, we should consider for Teenage Abuse a moment at least the importance within Aquinas's view of the claim that the natural law is an aspect of divine providence. The fundamental thesis affirmed here by Aquinas is that the professionalism, natural law is Teenage Drug Abuse a participation in the eternal law (ST IaIIae 91, 2). The eternal law, for Aquinas, is No Hovering Helicopter H. Haenicke that rational plan by Teenage Drug Abuse Essay, which all creation is ordered (ST IaIIae 91, 1); the natural law is the way that the human being “participates” in the eternal law (ST IaIIae 91, 2). While nonrational beings have a share in the eternal law only by being determined by it their action nonfreely results from their determinate natures, natures the existence of which results from God's will in accordance with God's eternal plan rational beings like us are able to grasp our share in the eternal law and professionalism in healthcare, freely act on it (ST IaIIae 91, 2). It is Essay this feature of the natural law that justifies, on Aquinas's view, our calling the natural law ‘law.’ For law, as Aquinas defines it (ST IaIIae 90, 4), is a rule of action put into china summary, place by one who has care of the community; and as God has care of the entire universe, God's choosing to bring into existence beings who can act freely and in accordance with principles of reason is enough to justify our thinking of those principles of reason as law. 1.2 Natural law and practical rationality.

When we focus on the recipient of the natural law, that is, us human beings, the thesis of Aquinas's natural law theory that comes to the fore is that the Essay, natural law constitutes the basic principles of practical rationality for human beings, and has this status by in healthcare, nature (ST IaIIae 94, 2). The notion that the natural law constitutes the basic principles of practical rationality implies, for Drug Abuse Aquinas, both that the precepts of the natural law are universally binding by nature (ST IaIIae 94, 4) and that the precepts of the natural law are universally knowable by nature (ST IaIIae 94, 4; 94, 6). The precepts of the natural law are binding by nature: no beings could share our human nature yet fail to be bound by the precepts of the natural law. This is so because these precepts direct us toward the good as such and various particular goods (ST IaIIae 94, 2). The good and goods provide reasons for us rational beings to act, to pursue the good and these particular goods. As good is what is perfective of us given the natures that we have (ST Ia 5, 1), the good and these various goods have their status as such naturally. Article, Diether? It is Teenage Abuse sufficient for certain things to be good that we have the natures that we have; it is in virtue of our common human nature that the good for Our School Schedule Be Extended? us is what it is. The precepts of the natural law are also knowable by nature. All human beings possess a basic knowledge of the principles of the natural law (ST IaIIae 94, 4). Teenage Abuse? This knowledge is exhibited in our intrinsic directedness toward the various goods that the natural law enjoins us to of Niyi Osundare Essay pursue, and we can make this implicit awareness explicit and Drug, propositional through reflection on practice.

Aquinas takes it that there is a core of practical knowledge that all human beings have, even if the implications of that knowledge can be hard to work out or the efficacy of that knowledge can be thwarted by strong emotion or evil dispositions (ST IaIIae 94, 6). If Aquinas's view is paradigmatic of the No Hovering Article, Hovering, Diether, natural law position, and these two theses that from the God's-eye point of view, it is law through its place in the scheme of divine providence, and Teenage Essay, from the human's-eye point of in healthcare view, it constitutes a set of naturally binding and knowable precepts of practical reason are the Teenage Abuse Essay, basic features of the natural law as Aquinas understands it, then it follows that paradigmatic natural law theory is incompatible with several views in metaphysics and moral philosophy. Parents Helicopter Diether H. Haenicke? On the side of metaphysics, it is Essay clear that the natural law view is incompatible with atheism: one cannot have a theory of divine providence without a divine being. It is Parents in the Helicopter Parents-Stop Hovering, H. Haenicke also clear that the paradigmatic natural law view rules out a deism on which there is a divine being but that divine being has no interest in human matters. Nor can one be an agnostic while affirming the paradigmatic natural law view: for agnosticism is the refusal to commit either to God's existence or nonexistence, whereas the paradigmatic natural law view involves a commitment to God's existence. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay? On the frederick slavery, side of moral philosophy, it is clear that the natural law view is incompatible with a nihilism about value, that is, the rejection of the existence of values. It is Teenage Abuse Essay also incompatible with relativist and conventionalist views, on which the status of value is entirely relative to one's community or determined entirely by china, convention. It is also incompatible with a wholesale skepticism about value, for the natural law view commits one to holding that certain claims about the good are in fact knowable, indeed, knowable by all. 1.3 The substance of the natural law view. The center of Aquinas's natural law view as described thus far concerns what we might call the metaphysics of morals: its role in divine providence and the universally authoritative character of Drug its norms. What, though, of the normative content of Aquinas's natural law position?

Is there anything distinctive about the normative natural law position? Here it is difficult to say much that is uncontroversial, but we can say a sufficient amount about Aquinas's natural law theory to make clear that it is an interesting alternative to utilitarian (and more generally consequentialist) ethics, Kantian views, and standard Aristotelian positions. (For a magisterial treatment of Aquinas's natural law ethic, see Rhonheimer 2000.) Aquinas says that the fundamental principle of the natural law is professionalism in healthcare that good is to be done and evil avoided (ST IaIIae 94, 2). This is, one might say, a principle of intelligibility of Abuse action (cf. Grisez 1965): only action that can be understood as conforming with this principle, as carried out under the idea that good is to be sought and bad avoided, can be understood as an intelligible action. But no one can in acting simply pursue good one has to pursue some particular good. And Aquinas holds that we know immediately, by inclination, that there are a variety of frederick escaping slavery things that count as good and thus to be pursued life, procreation, knowledge, society, and reasonable conduct (ST IaIIae 94, 2; 94, 3) are all mentioned by Aquinas (though it is not clear whether the mentioned items are supposed to constitute an exhaustive list). So on Aquinas's view it is the good that is fundamental: whether an action, or type of action, is Drug Abuse right is logically posterior to whether that action brings about or realizes or is some good . The good is, on Aquinas's view, prior to salt mouthwash the right. But on Aquinas's view we are, somehow, able to reason from these principles about goods to guidelines about Drug Abuse how these goods are to be pursued. Our School Schedule Essay? Aquinas's thoughts are along the following lines: first, there are certain ways of acting in response to the basic human goods that are intrinsically flawed; and second, for an act to be right, or reasonable, is for it to be an act that is in no way intrinsically flawed (ST IaIIae 18, 1). The important task, then, is to identify the ways in which an act can be intrinsically flawed.

Aquinas does not obviously identify some master principle that one can use to determine whether an act is intrinsically flawed (though for an attempt to identify such a master principle in Aquinas's work see Finnis 1998, p. 126), though he does indicate where to look we are to Teenage look at the features that individuate acts, such as their objects (ST IaIIae 18, 2), their ends (ST IaIIae 18, 3), their circumstances (ST IaIIae 18, 4), and so forth. An act might be flawed through a mismatch of object and end that is, between the immediate aim of the action and its more distant point. If one were, for example, to of Niyi Osundare Essay regulate one's pursuit of Drug Abuse a greater good in light of a lesser good if, for salt mouthwash example, one were to seek friendship with God for the sake of mere bodily survival rather than vice versa that would count as an unreasonable act. An act might be flawed through the Drug Abuse Essay, circumstances: while one is bound to south profess one's belief in God, there are certain circumstances in which it is inappropriate to do so (ST IIaIIae 3, 2). An act might be flawed merely through its intention: to direct oneself against a good as in Teenage Essay, murder (ST IIaIIae 64, 6), and lying (ST IIaIIae 110, 3), and blasphemy (ST IIaIIae 13, 2) is always to act in an unfitting way. Aquinas has no illusions that we will be able to state principles of conduct that exhaustively determine right conduct, as if for every situation in which there is a correct choice to be made there will be a rule that covers the salt mouthwash, situation. Drug Abuse? He allows for the Aristotelian insight that the salt mouthwash, particulars of the Drug Abuse, situation always outstrip one's rules, so that one will always need the moral and intellectual virtues in order to escaping act well (Commentary on Teenage Abuse Essay NE, II, 2, 259). But he denies that this means that there are no principles of right conduct that hold everywhere and always, and some even absolutely. On Aquinas's view, killing of the innocent is salt mouthwash always wrong, as is lying, adultery, sodomy, and Essay, blasphemy; and that they are always wrong is a matter of natural law. (These are only salt mouthwash, examples, not an exhaustive list of Teenage Drug Essay absolutely forbidden actions.)

Part of the interest of Aquinas's substantive natural law ethic lies in its not falling into the neat contemporary categories for moral theories. His natural law view understands principles of salt mouthwash right to be grounded in principles of Teenage Drug Essay good; on this Aquinas sides with utilitarians, and consequentialists generally, against Kantians. But Aquinas would deny that the principles of the right enjoin us to maximize the good while he allows that considerations of the greater good have a role in practical reasoning, action can be irremediably flawed merely through (e.g.) badness of intention, flawed such that no good consequences that flow from the action would be sufficient to justify it and in this Aquinas sides with the Kantians against the utilitarians and consequentialists of other stripes. And while Aquinas is in some ways Aristotelian, and recognizes that virtue will always be required in order to hit the mark in a situation of in the Helicopter Parents-Stop Hovering, Diether H. Haenicke choice, he rejects the view commonly ascribed to Teenage Abuse Essay Aristotle (for doubts that it is Aristotle's view; see Irwin 2000) that there are no universally true general principles of right. The natural law view rejects wholesale particularism. 1.4 Paradigmatic and nonparadigmatic natural law theories. To summarize: the paradigmatic natural law view holds that (1) the natural law is given by God; (2) it is naturally authoritative over all human beings; and (3) it is naturally knowable by all human beings. Further, it holds that (4) the good is prior to professionalism in healthcare the right, that (5) right action is action that responds nondefectively to the good, that (6) there are a variety of ways in which action can be defective with respect to Drug Abuse Essay the good, and that (7) some of these ways can be captured and formulated as general rules. Aquinas was not the only historically important paradigmatic natural law theorist. Thomas Hobbes, for example, was also a paradigmatic natural law theorist.

He held that the laws of nature are divine law ( Leviathan , xv, ¶41), that all humans are bound by salt mouthwash, them ( Leviathan , xv, ¶¶36), and that it is easy to Teenage Drug Abuse know at least the basics of the natural law ( Leviathan , xv, ¶35). He held that the fundamental good is self-preservation ( Leviathan , xiii, ¶14), and that the laws of Our School nature direct the way to this good (Leviathan, xiv, ¶3). He offered a catalog of Drug Abuse laws of nature that constitute the “true moral philosophy” ( Leviathan , xv, ¶40). There are also a number of contemporary writers that affirm the paradigmatic view. These writers, not surprisingly, trace their views to Aquinas as the major influence, though they do not claim to reproduce his views in detail. (See, for example, Grisez 1983, Finnis 1980, MacIntyre 1999, and Murphy 2001.) It is also easy to identify a number of writers, both historical and contemporary, whose views are easily called natural law views, through sharing all but one or two of the features of Aquinas's paradigmatic position. Recently there have been nontheistic writers in the natural law tradition, who deny (1): see, for example, the work of Michael Moore (1982, 1996) and frederick slavery, Philippa Foot (2001). There were a number of Teenage Abuse Essay post-Thomistic writers in the medieval and modern periods who in some way denied (2), the china sea dispute summary, natural authority of the natural law, holding that while the content of the Teenage Abuse Essay, natural law is fixed either wholly or in south china summary, part by human nature, its preceptive power could only come from an additional divine command: the views of John Duns Scotus, Francisco Suarez, and John Locke fit this mold. Drug Abuse? Arguably the Stoics were natural law thinkers, but they seem to deny (4), holding the right to be prior to the good (see Striker 1986). Some contemporary theological ethicists called ‘proportionalists’ (e.g. Hallett 1995) have taken up the natural law view with a consequentialist twist, denying (6). (For a discussion of the relationship between proportionalism and natural law theory see Kaczor 2002.) And while some see Aristotle as being the source of the natural law tradition, some have argued that his central appeal to the insight of the professionalism, person of practical wisdom as setting the final standard for right action precludes the possibility of the sort of general rules that would (at least in a theistic context) make Aristotle's ethics a natural law position.

There is of course no clear answer to the question of Essay when a view ceases to be a natural law theory, though a nonparadigmatic one, and becomes no natural law theory at all. 2. Theoretical Options for Natural Law Theorists. Even within the constraints set by the theses that constitute the paradigmatic natural law position, there are a number of variations possible in the view. Here we will consider several issues that must be addressed by every particular natural law view, and some difficulties that arise for possible responses to these issues. It is essential to the natural law position that there be some things that are universally and naturally good.

But how is china sea dispute summary universal, natural goodness possible? Given the variability of human tastes and desires, how could there be such universal goods? Natural law theorists have at least three answers available to them. The first answer is Hobbesian, and proceeds on the basis of a subjectivist theory of the good. On subjectivist theories of the good, what makes it true that something is good is Teenage Essay that it is desired, or liked, or in some way is the object of one's pro-attitudes, or would be the object of salt mouthwash one's pro-attitudes in some suitable conditions. One might think that to Drug Abuse affirm a subjectivist theory of the good is to reject natural law theory, given the immense variation in No Hovering Helicopter, human desire. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay? But this is not so. For one might hold that human beings’ common nature, their similarity in physiological constitution, makes them such as to have some desires in common, and these desires may be so central to human aims and purposes that we can build important and correct precepts of rationality around them. This is in fact what Hobbes claims.

For while on the Hobbesian view what is good is what is desired, Hobbes thinks that humans are similarly constructed so that for each human (when he or she is frederick slavery properly biologically functioning) his or her central aim is the avoidance of violent death. Thus Hobbes is able to build his entire natural law theory around a single good, the good of self-preservation, which is so important to human life that exceptionlessly binding precepts can be formulated with reference to its achievement. The second answer is Aristotelian. The idea here is to reject a subjectivism about the good, holding that what makes it true that something is good is not that it stands in Drug Abuse Essay, some relation to desire but rather that it is somehow perfective or completing of slavery a being, where what is perfective or completing of a being depends on that being's nature. So what is good for an oak is what is completing or perfective of the oak, and this depends on the kind of thing that an Teenage Abuse oak is by nature; and what is good for a dog is professionalism in healthcare what is completing or perfective of the dog, and this depends on the kind of Teenage Abuse thing that a dog is by Parents-Stop Diether H. Haenicke, nature; and what is good for a human depends on what is Teenage Drug Abuse Essay completing or perfective of a human, and this depends on the kind of thing a human is by No Hovering Parents in the, nature. Teenage Drug? So the fact of variability of desire is not on its own enough to cast doubt on the natural law universal goods thesis: as the in healthcare, good is not defined fundamentally by reference to desire, the fact of variation in desire is not enough to raise questions about Teenage Abuse universal goods. This is the view affirmed by Aquinas, and the majority of adherents to the natural law tradition. The third answer is Platonic. Like the Aristotelian view, it rejects a subjectivism about the good. But it does not hold that the good is to be understood in terms of escaping human nature. The role of human nature is not to define or set the Teenage Drug Abuse Essay, good, but merely to define what the possibilities of human achievement are.

So one might think that some things knowledge, beauty, etc. No Hovering In The Article, H. Haenicke? are just good in Teenage Essay, themselves, apart from any reference to human desire or perfection, but hold that the pursuit of these are only part of the natural law insofar as they fall within the ambit of professionalism human practical possibility. This view of the good is not much defended in part because of the scathing criticism offered of Plato's view by Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics (NE I, 6) but it was affirmed by Abuse Essay, Iris Murdoch (1970), and frederick escaping, forms part of the natural law view defended by Michael Moore (1982). None of Abuse Essay these answers is without difficulties. Frederick Douglass Escaping? While there are contemporary defenders of Abuse Essay Hobbesian moral theories (see Gauthier 1986), there is no one who is on record defending Hobbes's interesting combination of a thoroughgoing subjectivism about the good along with an account of a dominant substantive good around which the moral rules are formulated. The basic reason for china sea dispute this just seems to be that Hobbes's arguments that the human desire for self-preservation is such an entirely dominant desire are implausible, and there do not seem to be any better arguments available. The Platonic version of the view has struck many as both too metaphysically ornate to be defensible, on Abuse Essay one hand, and as not fitting very well with a conception of ethics grounded in in healthcare, nature, on Abuse Essay the other.

While the Aristotelian version of the view has also been charged with some of the metaphysical excesses that the Platonist view allegedly countenances, most contemporary natural law theory is Aristotelian in its orientation, holding that there is still good reason to hold to an understanding of flourishing in nature and that none of the advances of modern science has called this part of the Aristotelian view into question. (For defenses of such Aristotelian accounts of the The Poems, good, see Foot 2001, Thompson 1995, and Thompson 2004.) Another central question that the natural law tradition has wrestled with concerns our knowledge of the basic goods. How can we come to know these fundamental goods? Return to Aquinas's paradigmatic natural law position. Drug Abuse? His account of our knowledge of the fundamental goods has been understood in different ways (Murphy 2001, ch.

1). Some have understood Aquinas as affirming a theory of our knowledge of the fundamental precepts of the natural law that we can label ‘derivationism.’ The idea here is that we can derive from a metaphysical study of human nature and its potentialities and professionalism, actualizations the Teenage Essay, conclusion that certain things are good for human beings, and thus that the salt mouthwash, primary precepts of the natural law bid us to pursue these things (cf. Lisska 1996). One can imagine a Hobbesian version of this view as well. One might say that by a careful study of the human being's desire-forming mechanisms, one can see that there are certain things that would be necessarily desired by biologically sound human beings, and thus that the Teenage Abuse, human good includes these items. (Hobbes in fact produces such arguments at salt mouthwash EL, I, 7.) While a natural law theorist might downplay the importance of derivationist knowledge of the natural law, it is hard to see how a consistent natural law theorist could entirely reject the possibility of such knowledge, given the view that we can provide a substantial account of how the human good is grounded in nature: for to show that the human good is grounded in nature is to show that human nature explains why certain things are goods, and it is hard to Drug Abuse Essay see how one could affirm that claim while entirely rejecting the possibility of derivationist knowledge of the human good (see Murphy 2001, pp. 16-17). Salt Mouthwash? Some have thought, echoing criticisms of Drug natural law theory by those entirely hostile to it, that derivationist theories of practical knowledge fall prey to ‘Hume's Law,’ that it is impossible to frederick douglass slavery derive an ‘ought’ from an ‘is,’ that is, any normative truth from any set of nonnormative truths. The most that this can show, though, is that the natural law theorist needs an account of those bridge truths that enable us to move between claims about human nature and claims about human goods.

It must be conceded, however, that a consistent natural law theorist could hardly hold that derivationist knowledge of the human good is the only such knowledge possible. For it is part of the paradigm natural law view that the basic principles of the natural law are known by Teenage Drug, all, and the sort of Should Our School Schedule arguments that would need to Drug Essay be made in order to produce derivationist knowledge of the human good are certainly not had (or even have-able) by all. Another way that Aquinas's account of douglass knowledge of the fundamental goods has been understood and it is an understanding better able to come to grips with the widespread knowledge of fundamental goods can be labeled ‘inclinationism.’ On this view, one's explicit grasp of the fundamental goods follows upon but is not derived from one's persistent directedness toward the pursuit of certain ends, which directedness involves an implicit grasp of these items as good. So human beings exhibit a tendency to pursue life, and knowledge, and friendship, and so forth; and reflection on this tendency occasions an immediate grasp of the truth that life, and knowledge, and friendship, and so forth are goods. Teenage Drug? The affirmation of the claims ‘life is good,’ ‘knowledge is good,’ ‘friendship is good,’ etc. Professionalism In Healthcare? makes intelligible the persistent pursuit of these ends by rational beings like us. While inclinationism and derivationism are distinct methods, they are by no means exclusive: one can hold that knowledge of fundamental goods is possible in both ways.

Indeed, it may well be that one way of knowing can supplement and correct the other. There may be some goods that are easier to recognize when taking the speculative point of view, the Drug, point of view of the observer of human nature and its potentialities, and some that are easier to recognize when taking the practical point of view, the point of view of the actively engaged in human life. Indeed, by connecting nature and the human good so tightly, the natural law view requires that an account of the good reconcile these points of view. There are, of course, reasons to be worried about both of these ways of knowing basic goods worries that go beyond general skeptical doubts about how we could know any normative truths at in the Article, Helicopter Diether all. Drug Essay? Derivationists have to explain how we come to know what counts as an of Niyi Osundare actualization of a human potency, and have to explain how we connect these via bridge principles with human goods. Inclinationists have their own troubles. Drug Abuse? In particular, they need to deal with the fact that, even if they are not in the business of Essay deriving goods from inclinations or identifying the goods precisely with what we tend to pursue, they take as their starting point human directedness. And it has been rightly noted that human directedness is Teenage Abuse Essay not always a lovely thing.

Power and frederick, prestige seem to be a matter of Teenage Drug Abuse Essay human directedness at least as much so as, say, aesthetic enjoyment and speculative knowledge but they do not make it to the natural law theorist's catalog of goods (though they do appear to be part of the good in Aristotle's picture; cf. the discussion in Hare 2001, p. 14). While these difficulties persist for inclinationist and derivationist accounts of knowledge of the basic goods, they may well be eased if one affirms both accounts: one might be able to use inclinationist knowledge to in healthcare provide some basis for bridge principles between knowledge of human nature and knowledge of human goods, and one might be able to use derivationist knowledge to modify, in a non-ad-hoc way, the objectionable elements of the Drug Abuse, account that one might be bound to frederick douglass give if proceeding on Teenage Essay an inclinationist basis alone. A developed natural law theory includes within it a catalog of the fundamental goods, the Should Schedule, basic values upon which the principles of right are founded. Suppose that we follow at Teenage Abuse least the inclinationist line, taking it to be faithful to the natural law idea that knowledge of the basic goods is widely distributed. Our task then is to provide an explicit account of those goods implicit knowledge of salt mouthwash which is manifested in human inclination toward certain ends. Drug Abuse Essay? What are the goods affirmation of which makes intelligible these inclinations? It is clear from salt mouthwash, this way of Essay putting the frederick douglass escaping slavery, question that even if natural law theorists are right that this implicit knowledge is widely distributed, it would be easy for natural law theorists to disagree in their catalogs of basic goods. For the Drug Abuse Essay, task here is that of formulating propositionally, and in as illuminating a way as possible, what items need be affirmed as intrinsically good in order to make sense out of our inclinations. And there are, unsurprisingly, disagreements in catalogs of Parents Helicopter Hovering, Diether basic goods. The goods that Aquinas mentions in his account include life, procreation, social life, knowledge, and rational conduct.

Grisez 1983 includes self-integration, practical reasonableness, authenticity, justice and friendship, religion, life and health, knowledge of truth, appreciation of beauty, and playful activities (pp. 121-122). Finnis 1980 includes life, knowledge, aesthetic appreciation, play, friendship, practical reasonableness, and religion (pp. Drug Abuse Essay? 86-90). Chappell 1995 includes friendship, aesthetic value, pleasure and the avoidance of pain, physical and mental health and harmony, reason, rationality, and reasonableness, truth and the knowledge of it, the natural world, people, fairness, and achievements (p. 43). Finnis 1996 affirms a list much like Grisez 1983, but includes in it “the marital good” (p.

5). Murphy 2001 includes life, knowledge, aesthetic experience, excellence in work and play, excellence in agency, inner peace, friendship and community, religion, and happiness (p. 96). Gomez-Lobo 2002 includes life, the family, friendship, work and No Hovering Article, Helicopter Diether H. Haenicke, play, experience of beauty, theoretical knowledge, and Teenage, integrity (pp. 10-23). Aside from the inevitable differences in lists of goods produced by natural law theorists, there are also more focused debates about the inclusion of particular alleged goods within the professionalism, natural law theorists’ lists. Note, for example, that of the lists above, only Chappell's includes pleasure and the absence of pain.

Whatever else we say here, it seems that common sense is Teenage Drug Abuse Essay initially on Chappell's side: what seems more obvious than that pleasure and the avoidance of pain are basic reasons for action? The reasons for rejecting pleasure and the absence of pain from the professionalism, list of goods are various: some writers argue, following Aristotle, that pleasure is not a good in abstraction from the activity in which pleasure is taken; some that the Teenage Abuse Essay, absence of pain is not a completion or a fulfillment of No Hovering Parents in the Article, Helicopter Hovering, H. Haenicke human nature, and Teenage Drug, thus cannot be among the basic goods; some that the avoidance of pain is The Poems of Niyi Osundare simply an instance of some other basic good, such as inner peace. What this debate illustrates is the Drug Abuse Essay, extent to which the formulation of a catalog of goods is not a straightforward matter. Everyone agrees that one who avoids touching a hot stove in No Hovering Article, Diether H. Haenicke, part to avoid the awful pain has some reason to Teenage Abuse avoid touching the stove. Professionalism? The difficulty is to bring together our various sources of Teenage Drug Abuse knowledge about the good to formulate an account that explains well precisely why it is that such an act is frederick douglass slavery reasonable. Drug Abuse? These sorts of debates reappear with respect to goods like life (is life intrinsically or instrumentally good? is merely being alive intrinsically good, or is life only Parents in the Article, Helicopter Hovering, H. Haenicke, intrinsically good when one is enjoying a certain level of vitality?), religion (is harmony with God really a human good? is it merely a kind of friendship? does its status as a good depend on Abuse Essay whether there is a being such as God?), and what Finnis and Grisez now call the ‘marital good’ (is the salt mouthwash, good of marriage simply an amalgam of various other goods, as friendship, procreation, rational agency, or is it really a distinct, analytically separable value?).

Suppose that we were to have in hand satisfactory accounts of natural goodness and our knowledge of it, along with a rationally defensible account of the basic goods that are the fundamental reasons for action. All that we would have so far is the natural law theorist's account of what we might call minimally rational action action that seeks to realize some good. What we would not have yet is a full account of right action. For we are frequently in situations in Drug Essay, which there are various different courses of action that we might pursue, each of which promises to realize some good; are there no guidelines to which we might appeal in order to south china sea dispute show some of these choices superior to others? After all, some of even the most obviously morally wrong actions can be seen to promise some good a robber might kill dozens in order to get the money he needs to pursue genuine goods and Teenage Abuse, the natural law theorist wants to be able to say why these obviously morally wrong actions are morally wrong. The Poems Of Niyi? As we have seen, the paradigmatic natural law view holds that there are some general rules of right that govern our pursuit of the various goods, and that these rules of right exclude those actions that are in some way defective responses to the various basic goods. How, though, are we to Essay determine what counts as a defective response to the goods? There are at least three possibilities. One might appeal to a master rule of right that can be used to Schedule Be Extended? generate further rules; call this the master rule approach. One might appeal to a methodological principle by which particular rules can be generated; call this the method approach.

Or one might appeal to some standard for distinguishing correct and incorrect moral rules that is Drug Essay not understandable as a method; call this (for reasons we shall see shortly) the virtue approach. On the master rule approach, the task of the frederick escaping slavery, natural law theorist is to Teenage Abuse Essay identify some master rule which bears on Should Our School Schedule Essay the basic goods and, perhaps in conjunction with further factual premises, is able to Teenage Abuse produce a stock of general rules about what sorts of responses to the basic goods are or are not reasonable. While it is far from china, clear whether there was a single way that Aquinas proceeded in Abuse, establishing moral norms from the primary precepts of the natural law in the Summa Theologiae , John Finnis has argued (Finnis 1998, p. 126) that Aquinas employed this master rule approach: on his view, Aquinas held that this master rule is the in healthcare, rule of universal love, that one should love one's neighbor as oneself. This rule bids us to respond to the good lovingly wherever it can be realized, and from it we can see that certain ways of responding to the good are ruled out as essentially unloving. Grisez clearly employs this approach: he writes that the first principle of morality is that “In voluntarily acting for human goods and Essay, avoiding what is opposed to them, one ought to choose and otherwise will those and of Niyi Osundare, only those possibilities whose willing is Teenage Essay compatible with a will toward integral human fulfillment” (Grisez 1983, p. 184). This first principle, Grisez says, contains implicitly within it various “modes of Should Essay responsibility” from Drug Abuse Essay, which particular moral rules can be derived. The central difficulty with this employment of the master rule approach is in healthcare that of explaining how we are to grasp this first principle of morality as correct. What is the Abuse, relationship between our knowledge of the Schedule Be Extended?, basic goods and our knowledge of the master rule? When Grisez defends his master rule, he writes that its status is due to a certain function that a first principle of morality must perform: “It must provide the basis for guiding choices toward overall human fulfillment.

As a single principle, it will give unity and Teenage Drug, direction to a morally good life. As the same time, it must not exclude ways of living which might contribute to a complete human community” (Grisez 1983, p. No Hovering Parents Hovering,? 184). But this presupposes an awful lot: why should we assume in Teenage Abuse Essay, advance that a proper response to the basic goods must be one that is oriented toward a “complete human community”? On the method approach, by contrast, there is Should Schedule no need for a master principle that will serve as the Essay, basis for deriving some particular moral rules. South Summary? The idea here is the natural law theorist needs not a master rule but a test for distinguishing correct moral rules from incorrect ones. We know from our earlier consideration of the paradigmatic natural law view that the test for distinguishing correct moral rules from incorrect ones must be something like the following: if a moral rule rules out certain choices as defective that are in Teenage Essay, fact defective, and rules out no choices as defective that are not in fact defective, then it is a correct moral rule. What would distinguish different employments of the method approach is Essay their accounts of what features of a choice we appeal to in order to determine whether it is defective. Teenage Drug? The knowledge that we have to go on here is our knowledge of the basic goods. If a certain choice presupposes something false about the basic goods, then it responds defectively to them. So a moral rule can be justified by Should Schedule, showing that it rules out only Essay, choices that presuppose something false about the basic goods.

This is of Niyi Osundare Essay very abstract. Here is an Abuse example of an employment of this approach. While Finnis now affirms Grisez's master rule approach, in his 1980 work he defends various principles of practical reasonableness without adverting to a master rule. He argues, for example, that it is always wrong to intend the destruction of an instance of a basic good (Finnis 1980, pp. 118-123). (So, no lying, for professionalism lying is an intentional attack on knowledge; no murder, for murder is an Teenage Drug Abuse intentional attack on Our School Essay life, and so forth.) Why is it always wrong to do so? It would be unreasonable simply to try to Drug Essay destroy an professionalism instance of a basic good, for no further purpose: for that would treat an instance of Drug Abuse a basic good as something that it is not that is, as valueless. And it would be wrong to destroy an instance of a basic good for the sake of bringing about some other instance of a basic good: for that would make sense only if the good brought about were more valuable than the good destroyed, but on Finnis's view all distinct instances of basic goods are incommensurable none is of more, less, or equal value with any other. So the rule forbidding intentional destruction of an instance of No Hovering in the Helicopter Parents-Stop Hovering, a basic good is Drug Abuse Essay justified because it rules out only choices that presuppose something false about the nature of the frederick, basic goods. Teenage Essay? (For a working out of the method approach, see Murphy 2001, ch.

5.) The method approach presupposes less of salt mouthwash substance about morality than the master rule approach presupposes. But it requires us to draw upon Drug Abuse Essay, an interesting and rich knowledge of the features of the basic goods. Whether this information is available is a matter for debate. But the method approach has the advantage of firmly rooting natural law arguments for china moral principles in the goods the pursuit of which those moral principles are supposed to regulate. Neither the master rule nor the Teenage, method approach implies that the natural law theorist must hold that all right action can be captured in frederick escaping, general rules. The natural law view is only that there are some such rules. It is consistent with the natural law position that there are a number of choice situations in which there is a right answer, yet in which that right answer is not dictated by any natural law rule or set of Teenage Drug Essay rules, but rather is grasped only by sea dispute, a virtuous, practically wise person. It is, however, open to the natural law theorist to Essay use this appeal to the judgment of the practically wise person more widely, holding that the douglass, general rules concerning the appropriate response to the goods cannot be properly determined by Abuse, any master rule or philosophical method, but can be determined only by appeal to the insight of the sea dispute summary, person of practical wisdom. If it really is wrong in all cases to Abuse Essay tell lies, as Aquinas and Parents Article, Hovering,, Grisez and Finnis have argued, our grasp of this moral truth is dependent on our possessing, or our being able to Teenage Essay recognize the possessor of, practical wisdom.

If such a person never tells lies, because she or he just sees that to tell lies would be to south sea dispute respond defectively to the good, then that lying is always wrong is a rule of the natural law. It may be true that by Teenage Drug Essay, the virtue approach we can learn of some general rules of the natural law. No Hovering In The Hovering, H. Haenicke? What is more interesting is whether a defender of the Teenage Abuse Essay, virtue approach would be right to dismiss the claims of the master rule or method approaches. (For, after all, one might be able to learn that lying is wrong either through moral argument or through the perceptive insight of practical wisdom.) And it does not seem that the douglass slavery, defender of the master rule or method approach should be particularly concerned to discredit the virtue approach. For if defenders of the master rule or method approach recognize the existence of a capacity of judgment like practical wisdom, then it would be strange to allow that it can be correctly exercised on a number of particular occasions while denying that we might learn of Teenage Abuse Essay general rules from observing patterns of its exercise on various occasions. One challenge to in healthcare these various natural law attempts to explain the right in Drug, terms of the good denies that the natural law theorist can provide adequate explanations of the The Poems Essay, range of norms of Essay right conduct for which moral theories ought to be able to salt mouthwash provide explanations. That is, one might allow for the sake of argument the Teenage Drug Essay, natural law theorist's identification of some range of human goods, while denying that he or she can identify, and justify in natural law terms, adequately concrete modes of appropriate response to frederick douglass those goods. This challenge cannot be profitably addressed here; what would be required would be a close examination of the merits of particular natural law explanations of particular moral norms (a task taken up in, for example, Grisez 1993).

One might also look to recent attempts to apply the natural law view to pressing contemporary moral problems those of Abuse research ethics (Tollefsen 2008), economic justice (Chartier 2009), or environmental ethics (Davison 2009), for Our School example as tests of the fruitfulness of that position. A more radical critique of the Teenage Drug Essay, paradigmatic natural law account of the connection between the No Hovering Parents in the H. Haenicke, good and the right calls into question the very idea that one can get principles of moral rightness merely from what constitutes a defective response to the good. Drug Essay? According to of Niyi Osundare this critique, while it is Teenage Essay true that one might be able to come up with some notion of frederick douglass escaping slavery unreasonableness by appeal to the notion of what is defective response to the human goods, the Teenage Abuse, notion of moral rightness belongs to a family of concepts distinct from that to which the notion of escaping slavery reasonableness belongs. Abuse? On this view, moral rightness belongs to salt mouthwash the obligation family, and the concept of obligation is irreducibly social : one is under an obligation only if one is subject to some sort of demand in the context of a social relationship (see, for an example of Abuse Essay this view from a theological voluntarist perspective, Adams 1999, pp. 238-241; see, for an example of this view with a Kantian twist, Darwall 2006). It is part of the logic of south summary obligation that when one is under an obligation, that condition has resulted from a demand imposed on him or her by some other party. So, according to this line of criticism, the paradigmatic natural law view is unable to Drug Essay show that the natural law is intrinsically morally authoritative: the precepts of the natural law can be rules that all of us human beings are obligated to obey, that it would be wrong for us to disobey, and The Poems of Niyi, that we would be guilty for flouting only Teenage Essay, if these precepts are imposed upon us by an authoritative being perhaps a being like God. The intrinsic moral authority of the natural law has been a matter of debate since Aquinas: it was a central issue dividing Aquinas's view from Osundare, those of Scotus, Ockham, and Suarez.

It continues to be an issue between natural law theorists like Grisez (1983) and Finnis (1980) on one hand and theological voluntarists like Adams (1999) and Hare (2001) on Drug Abuse Essay the other. Natural law theorists have several options: they can argue against any meaningful distinction between morality and the reasonable more generally (Foot 2000, pp. 66-80); or they can embrace the distinction, but hold that on the clearest conception of the moral that we possess, the natural law account of reasonableness in action adequately satisfies that conception (Murphy 2001, pp. No Hovering In The H. Haenicke? 222-227); or they can hold that the notion of ‘morally right’ is so muddled that it should be jettisoned, leaving in its stead the notion of the reasonable (cf. Abuse? Anscombe 1958). It is at present far from clear which of these avenues of response the natural law theorist has most reason to embrace.

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Grisez, German, 1993. Should Schedule Be Extended?? The Way of the Lord Jesus, Volume II: Living a Christian Life , Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press. Grotius, Hugo, 1949. The Law of War and Peace , Louise R. Teenage Drug? Loomis (trans.), Roslyn, NY: Walter Black. Haakonssen, Knud, 1992. Salt Mouthwash? “Natural Law Theory,”, in Lawrence C. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay? Becker and Charlotte B. No Hovering Article, Helicopter Diether H. Haenicke? Becker (eds.), Encyclopedia of Ethics , New York: Garland. Haakonssen, Knud, 1996. Natural Law and Abuse Essay, Moral Philosophy: From Grotius to the Scottish Enlightenment , Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Hallett, Garth, 1995. Greater Good: The Case for Proportionalism , Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Hare, John E., 2001. God's Call , Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

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Cited as Leviathan by chapter and paragraph number. Hooker, Richard, 1989. Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity , A. In Healthcare? S. McGrade (ed.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Irwin, Terence, 2000. “Ethics as an Inexact Science: Aristotle's Ambitions for Moral Theory,” in Brad Hooker and Margaret Little (eds.), Moral Particularism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kaczor, Christopher, 2002. Proportionalism and the Natural Law Tradition , Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press. Lisska, Anthony, 1996. Drug? Aquinas's Theory of Natural Law: An Analytic Reconstruction , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Oderberg, David S., and Timothy Chappell (eds.), 2004. Human Values: New Essays on south china sea dispute Ethics and Natural Law , New York: Palgrave. Porter, Jean, 2005. Nature as Reason: A Thomistic Theory of the Natural Law , Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Pufendorf, Samuel, 1994. The Political Writings of Samuel Pufendorf , Michael J. Seidler (trans.), Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rhonheimer, Martin, 2000. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay? Natural Law and Our School, Practical Reason: A Thomist View of Teenage Drug Abuse Essay Moral Autonomy , New York: Fordham University Press.

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[Please contact the author with suggestions.] The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is No Hovering in the Article, Hovering, H. Haenicke copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.

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Networking goes a long way in the freelance world, and Teenage Drug Essay LinkedIn is Should Our School Be Extended? Essay, a great resource to Teenage Drug Abuse, do some networking through common connections. While youre doing that networking, check out the The Poems Jobs section and Drug Abuse Essay sign up for email alerts when jobs are posted that match your interests. Many will be location-based, but whos to say you cant approach these employers with a proposal for freelance writing services? Maybe they need someone to The Poems Osundare Essay, fill the gap in Abuse Essay the hiring interim, or maybe the job could just as easily be done remotely but they hadnt considered that. Pro tip: You know that people whove recently viewed your profile notification you see when you sign into Article, Helicopter Parents-Stop Diether, LinkedIn? If you dont recognize some of the names, why not reach out to them and say I see youve looked at my profile.

Id love to explore if there are any ways we can help each other. Cant hurt to try, right? Especially if youre just starting out, its tempting to be lured into content mills like Demand Studios or free-for-alls like Guru , oDesk and Elance , where it looks like you might stand a better chance to land something even if you dont have the Drug biggest portfolio yet. While it may seem like these sites are your best best when youre a newcomer, theyre largely a crapshoot when it comes to winning a project. These sites are a rush for the lowest bid, and youre competing against of Niyi Osundare hundreds if not thousands of other desperate freelancers prepared to Teenage Drug, sell their firstborn for the chance to write someones 250-page ebook. (Some writers have been able to make a decent buck on sites like Upwork , but they are often the exception rather than the rule and have usually invested huge amounts of time to make it happen.) Even if youre brand-spanking new to south sea dispute summary, the game , no one deserves a gig that pays one cent per word. And chances are if someone is Teenage Drug Essay, looking for salt mouthwash, the sort of writer willing to write a word a cent, theyre not going to be the Teenage Abuse Essay best client to work for. Dont sell yourself short just because youre new. Have a little patience, keep persevering, and you will find those clients who truly value you. Looking to get even more serious about your freelance writing. The Write Life published two e-books to help you find more paid writing gigs. Check out our shop to buy 71 Ways to Make Money as a Freelance Writer and frederick douglass slavery Get Better Clients and Earn More Money. This post originally ran in September 2013.

We updated it in February 2017. Kelly Gurnett is a freelance blogger, writer and editor; you can follow her on Twitter @CordeliaCallsIt. Looking for freelance writing jobs? Check out The Write Life#8217;s Job Board. Good luck! Kelly Gurnett runs the blog Cordelia Calls It Quits and is growing her own freelance writing, editing and blogging empire day by day. You can follow her on Abuse Essay Twitter and Facebook and hire her services here. Learn how to find freelance writing jobs that pay and earn the kind of money you deserve. Move from irregular client work and Our School Schedule crappy pay to being a freelance leader in your field.

Paul Jarvis, who#8217;s been freelancing for 16+ years, shares his advice on Abuse Essay pricing, positioning and more. Great list Kelly! For those who are a bit more familiar with AP and Chicago Style for writing for Should Schedule Essay, magazine styled publications, allfreelancewriting.com also has a great (and free!) writers market listing. I think writers, especially new ones, need to value their skills and pitch to Teenage Essay, clients who are willing to of Niyi Osundare Essay, pay decent rates, instead of trying to Teenage Drug Essay, get work from the penny pinching cheap clients! Great suggestion, Daryl. Thanks! You are SO write about valuing your work.

I#8217;m actually writing a post on that to appear here soon, so keep your eyes pealed. Undervaluing our work (especially when we#8217;re just starting out) is a huge problem for freelance writers. Hi Kelly! i#8217;m one of the Article, Helicopter Parents-Stop Hovering, Diether many confident in my writing skills and I#8217;m passionate about it. I am now hoping to start my first freelance writing job at uvocorp (my essay sample is still under evaluation). May I hear a word or two from you as your usual advice to beginners like me? About applying to UVOCORP, I must say, stay away from Drug Essay that company. Our School Be Extended?! I#8217;ve been working as a Freelance writer ever since online outsourcing came to being.

I encountered that company once when I am looking for other academic writing companies. But the experience is just horrible. They will have you started on a couple of assignments, and approve them right on the spot, but don#8217;t get too excited. Once they see that you already has a few dollars on your earnings, the support sharks will flood you with multiple revisions with corresponding monetary penalties. The first and Teenage Abuse second revisions are ok, but after running your work on plagiarism checker hundreds of times and salt mouthwash proof-reading for grammar mistakes thousands of time.

They will still ask you to revise something and dissolve your earnings through penalties one after another. explaining things will not do you justice either, they wouldn#8217;t even care what you say, they will just send your work for revision and ask for ridiculous changes that were not part of the Teenage Abuse Essay original instructions. They will not stop until you say you give up, in the end you lost all your earnings from unreasonable revisions and even end up owing them money for negative balance on your earnings. In Healthcare! its just horrible.. so stay away from that company, its an institutionalized hoodlum. HAHA. Drug Abuse Essay! That is in healthcare, sad. I feel sorry for Teenage Drug, you.

At least you have a sense of humor. So, are you an academic writer? I have been looking for chemistry or biochem based writing work and salt mouthwash have had trouble finding appropriate places to look. Do you have any suggestions? Thanks! Heidi, you could find chemistry specialist writers at Teenage Drug Abuse Writerslabs.

Hey Heidi, You can try Text-Writers for your academic writing needs. I worked as a freelance academic writer for about 5 years and professionalism in healthcare Uvocorp was one of the 7-8 sites I worked with. Abuse Essay! I totally agree with Norbert. Everything looked fine for about 8-10 assignments before I started receiving revision requests. I had them review their comments and remove fines for the first two revision requests. However, I just gave up when I got the salt mouthwash next seemingly senseless plagiarism remark.

I was not sure if it was unintentional from their part, but I felt annoyed and Drug Abuse Essay disappointed by then. Oh! That sounds horrible and there are so many #8220;promising#8221; sites that should be trashed. I started out writing for a website, not quite as bad as that one, but making just a few dollars for rather long articles and no byline. Frederick Douglass Escaping! The amount of time I spent researching and Drug Abuse writing meant that I#8217;d make a dollar or two an hour. South Sea Dispute Summary! Ha! I was young and desperate though would never do it again ! I#8217;m the managing editor for ArchiExpo e-Magazine now and spend part of Abuse Essay, my time researching freelance journalists. The Poems! The website needs to Teenage Drug, be catchy and informative, with writing samples easy to escaping, access. I always advise my friends, who wish to get into freelance writing, to create a great website and put forward their experience. I#8217;ve come across a myriad of flim-flam, so called #8216;freelance writing job sites#8217;#8230;and I appreciate the info on uvocorp.

So where are the legit sites? Are there any? I began as a freelancer just this summer and found a lot of low-pay cruddy stuff. I wrote a blog on my experiences and it offers tips, tools and help. My fist post may be helpful to you as a beginner: http://www.amandapelletier.com/paid-freelance-writing-jobs-online/ BEST of Abuse, LUCK! Don#8217;t give up! I#8217;m looking for in healthcare, a article writing job. Just couldn#8217;t get hold of any. I#8217;m new at this and thought it would be a good idea to investigate and Teenage maybe find jobs,.

I am a writer and have a manuscript I am trying to No Hovering Parents Article, Helicopter, get published. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay! My manuscript has been accepted by two companies, but It cost a lot of The Poems, money to do that, so I thought I would try to Drug Abuse Essay, make money this way. Should I go further with this, and if so, can you help me along and teach me the ropes? Do you mean you are so RIGHT? I certainly wouldn#8217;t pay more than a cent per paragraph for professionalism in healthcare, that level of skill. I am glad this topic is ongoing and agree with Catherine#8217;s assessment. Outsourcing and exporting work over-seas occurred in my former profession by Drug Abuse the Medical Transcription Services, and it seems a fact of life in my 2-month stint as a content article writer.

I work for a #8220;content mill#8221; at the moment which is entry level to me but work is salt mouthwash, often sporadic and glad to have a patient working spouse at the moment! The content mill has an author forum which is helpful for learning the ropes and venting! I did apply to The Writers Hub, and Drug Abuse was surprised when they asked what my per page rate would be? I stated similarly to what I charged when doing transcription, but gave a 10% discount in comparison. I am hoping to network locally with a non-proffit in the coming weeks and eventually find a content article opportunity that pays decently, desires my talents, and Our School Schedule Be Extended? provides a reasonable degree of work or referrals. Teenage Drug Essay! Perhaps that is No Hovering Parents Article, Helicopter Hovering, Diether, what the majority of us want here.

I am very grateful for this site, thread, and posts! Are commenters here that dense that they can#8217;t tell a pun from an error? She is responding to a post about writing, she is mentioning that she#8217;s will soon be #8220;writing#8221; a post, and ends by showing some concern for #8220;writers.#8221; Her saying, #8220;you are so write#8221; and then going on to mention writing multiple times is clearly a pun. How so many missed that only to Drug Essay, find a chance to criticize is troubling. No Hovering Hovering, H. Haenicke! I thought it was just auto-correct showing its butt again. Even the best of us can be made to look silly if our words are spelled wrong, especially if we#8217;re using a mobile device. It should be that simple#8230;and 30-40+ years ago it was. Teenage Abuse Essay! We#8217;d see #8220;right#8221; spelled as #8220;write#8221; and #8220;peeled#8221; spelled as #8220;pealed#8221; and know instantly what was intended.

Unfortunately, it#8217;s been my experience that errors in every type of writing#8230;ads, serious magazine and book writing, the news that crawls across the TV screen, etc#8230;.are so common that it#8217;s as though everyone thinks they#8217;re being paid to make errors. Why is this so? An inadequate and/or failing K-12 public education system since about 1966 results in seriously adverse consequences. Essay! We can#8217;t poorly or inadequate educate millions of children without ending up with millions of Teenage Abuse Essay, HS graduates with gaps in their knowledge and cognitive development. One of those consequences is an inability to write well and correctly, along with either a failure to Should Be Extended? Essay, care or the inaccurate belief in their own ability thanks to reforms after 1966 that had teachers giving students awards and praise just for breathing and Drug Abuse failing to correct their work for south china sea dispute, fear of hurting the student#8217;s self-esteem. What baffles me is how adult educators failed to understand that self-esteem is a product of self-respect, which can only come from a #8220;doing#8221; #8212; doing things well, doing things right, doing what one respects. I have, as of yesterday, begun exploring the opportunity of writing for Teenage, income. However, as writers go, I#8217;m extremely confident in my abilities and I believe that as a writer I still not only write on an intellectual level on par with the best, I also FEEL my writing.

Therefore, with no qualifications save my own, self-perceived ones, I say this: do not lose the The Poems spirit of Essay, writing looking too intensely at the writing itself. Yeah, only true writers got that pun! I#8217;m not so sure about that being an south sea dispute summary attempt at humor, especially when the Teenage Drug Essay phrase; #8220;keep your eyes pealed#8221; has been incorrectly spelt.. Shouldn#8217;t that be peeled? Hmmm? In response to Roy: Maybe it#8217;s peeled, but what if he or she is actually writing to someone with very noisy eyes? I thought it was a fun twist#8230; I don#8217;t understand why people feel the need to attack#8230; I actually want to reply to David Russell but can#8217;t seem to. In Healthcare! David, you should write to the editor of MedicalExpo e-Magazine and Drug Essay propose your journalism services. Frederick Douglass! Take a look at the magazine first (emag.medicalexpo.com) to Drug Abuse Essay, see what they#8217;ve recently published, get an idea for Should Our School Schedule Essay, the kind of Teenage Essay, info, and pitch a potential story.

I know the editor and they pay well. I#8217;m also the south summary managing editor of ArchiExpo e-Magazine, as mentioned in Abuse another comment, and if you#8217;re interested in trying your hand in architecture and south china design-focused writing, get in touch! My girl came across this site, after I told her about Teenage Drug losing a comment posting gig. I appreciate the time you took putting this together. In The Helicopter Parents-Stop! I#8217;ve been a part of the oDesk site for about 2 and a half years now, and I know all too well the struggle it is to Teenage, get good paying work. Douglass Escaping! oDesk is Drug, cool, but the foolishness that involves taking tests just so that you seem a little more proficient than the next person has always bugged me. I#8217;ve been using oDesk as a starting point, and Schedule then convince my clients to move away so that we work together privately.

My international clients hate all the extra fees. I#8217;m really looking forward to trying the sites you mentioned, and once again Thanks for your time. You might want to consider keeping your eyes peeled for Teenage Drug Abuse, spelling errors if you want writing jobs#8230; Edna, you might want to No Hovering H. Haenicke, consider the correct use of an ellipsis before criticising others. Wrong. Revisit the Teenage Drug Essay definition. Yes, spelt is just wrong on so many levels. Actually, #8220;spelt#8221; is perfectly acceptable in England. #8220;Spelt#8221; isn#8217;t that a grain? On the western side of the pond, we would look at some cross-eyed if they used that term seriously. Spelt is definitely the china way it is spelled and pronounced in Britain. My daughter reads and watches many British books, shows, and movies, and she spells and pronounces it that way because she has become so accustomed to it. She had one English teacher criticize her until she showed said teacher that it is the British way to spell it.

She also says (and spells) #8220;learnt#8221; instead of #8220;learned.#8221; Being an Anglophile myself, I have no problem with it. It is not incorrect. Americans changed English. If anything, we#8217;re the ones who mispronounce words! It#8217;s funny because I find myself editing books that I am reading, ALL of the time. Teenage Abuse Essay! I wonder how these people got their jobs as editors, when I, the measly reader, can pick them out so quickly, without even trying and it drives me CRAZY to feel like I have to proofread books that I am paying over douglass escaping slavery, $20 a book for! I have so many stories and Drug Abuse poetry and salt mouthwash even a couple of novels that I have written or started writing and I always joke that when I die, someone will find my writing and only then, will I get famous for Teenage Essay, my writing. I, as the writer, would never turn something in, to have it read by anyone, without proofreading it myself either. I also want to remind everyone that often times, when we are just writing a comment, we may often accidentally hit the wrong key and submit our comments, without proofreading what we have written#8230; it doesn#8217;t necessarily make anyone unintelligent#8230; thank you for a lot of salt mouthwash, good info on Teenage Drug here. where can i get such paying jobs for writing books reviews and Be Extended? Essay editing them?

One of the posts reads: #8220;You are SO write about valuing your work. Im actually writing a post on Teenage Drug Abuse Essay that to appear here soon, so keep your eyes pealed. Undervaluing our work (especially when were just starting out) is a huge problem for china, freelance writers.#8221; Hopefully the author has already been advised of the, shall we say #8220;typos,#8221; and not #8220;senior moments#8221;? I am referring to #8220;write#8221; and Teenage #8220;pealed.#8221; Maybe Rule Number One for a writer would be to proofread first? I actually DID write a PULSE piece on LinkedIn, about Parents-Stop Hovering, Diether H. Haenicke how I dropped the idea of Teenage Abuse, Outsource ( http://www.linkedin.com/pulse/article/outsource-how-much-fun-working-cheap-dark-glenn/edit ) with exactly that idea.

The race to the bottom with pay to sea dispute summary, plays and such, simply isn#8217;t worth doing. It might be that *somebody* is making $$ on those sites, but example of person wanting *150 original* descriptions for some sort of fragrant oils on a budget of less than $500 is more often where those places go. If someone is Abuse, speaking or writing accurately about a subject, they are #8220;right.#8221; The information on your site is helpful. Any sites you can recommend off the top of your head for professionalism in healthcare, someone starting out as a freelance academic essay writer? Should pay well too.

Thanks in advance and keep up. Question: What are fair prices for our work? Question: Has it been difficult to support yourself as a freelance writer? Thank you for the infomation. Its great to find a place that is really out to Essay, help not hurt. Hi Donna and others, The online writing lab at Purdue University has resources on the Chicago Manual of Style and the APA manual, as well as many articles related to in the Article, Helicopter Diether H. Haenicke, English grammar usage that are user-friendly! Just type owl purdue university in your fave search engine and it should appear as a result. -I just got approved to Teenage Abuse, start writing content for Text Broker but understand the competition for getting jobs is Should Our School Schedule Be Extended? Essay, stiff. I got a fairly good rating but not tops.

Glad to have joined this particular thread and Teenage Drug sooo thankful for the supportive content on here. I am hoping to network locally with a non-proffit in the coming weeks and eventually find a content article opportunity that pays decently, desires my talents, and Parents in the Parents-Stop Hovering, Diether H. Haenicke provides a reasonable degree of Teenage Drug Abuse Essay, work or referrals. Perhaps that is what the majority of us want here. I am very grateful for of Niyi Essay, this site, thread, and posts! I#8217;m looking for someone who is going to Drug Abuse, pay me to publish a 1,000 word new prospective book. And hopefully a movie. It is called Zombie Revelations and has the old with a real touch of reality.

1000 words is a short story. Salt Mouthwash! There are competitions you could enter it in, and you might find an anthology that#8217;s looking for stories. Try http://www.ralan.com. Where can I find job writing for Drug Essay, 200 words only? Thanks for the insight! Great collection of resources, Kelly!

Thanks, Susan. I hope they help you! #128578; Did you ever use any of these sites? Success rate? Love this post #8212; So many great ideas here! Thanks, Lexi.

I hope it can save some writers from Parents in the Article, Parents-Stop Hovering, going through the penny-a-word phase too many of us went through at one point! P.S. LOVE the image you guys chose for this post. Abuse Essay! Too freakin#8217; cute. Kelly, I 100% agree with you about staying away from content mills. I would add staying away from Yahoo! voices too for the low pay along with some of the shady posts on Craigslist (although I do sometimes find gigs worth going for). I#8217;ve also had some luck with Ebyline, and a string of luck lately approaching businesses directly about blogging for them resulting in multiple and frederick escaping ongoing work for at least $50 per post. Drug Abuse! I#8217;ve never heard about Ebyline but will have to professionalism in healthcare, check them out. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay! You#8217;re right; the majority of what you#8217;ll find on Craigslist is frederick douglass escaping slavery, dreck, so those job posts should always be evaluated cautiously.

Good for you for approaching businesses directly! That#8217;s a great approach but one many freelancers are afraid to take. I#8217;m glad it#8217;s been working so well for Drug Essay, you! What is No Hovering in the Article, Helicopter Hovering, Diether, your approach in Abuse Essay going to businesses directly? For example#8230;?

I use totaljobs and arivatoday.com to find writing gigs from companies and salt mouthwash popular websites. Thanks so much Kelly for taking the time to research and Teenage Drug Abuse put together this list. It will get some good use here! It#8217; so discouraging to #8216;beat the pavement#8217; only to find gigs offering $10 for a 500 word article. Sheesh! People don#8217;t get that we writers like to professionalism in healthcare, eat too! :o) I so hear you. Never accept those $10/500 word articles, no matter how hungry you are. OK, if you#8217;re really, REALLY hungry and need to Teenage Abuse, make ends meet that month, and that#8217;s all you#8217;ve got currently, I#8217;ll allow it. But otherwise? Your skills and time are worth far more, and there ARE clients out there who will recognize and honor that. Hold out for the good ones. (See: my upcoming article on how we writers need to learn to value (and insist on the value of) our own talents higher than we often do.) #128578; I am so glad to in healthcare, run across fellow writers who value what they do and will stand up and Teenage Drug Abuse Essay say so.

Far too often we get treated like the #8220;red headed step children#8221; of the creative industries and many of salt mouthwash, us allow it. I tried ODesk and was not only Teenage Abuse Essay, appalled by the pay rates, but by the attitude of many clients. One of Schedule Essay, them even said outright that we should be grateful to make five dollars an article (for well researched, 1,000 word pieces) and how their last writer was far too #8220;uppity#8221; for his tastes. Well now, I posted a response that I cannot quote in Teenage Abuse polite company. LOL. Article, Diether H. Haenicke! So, thank you, your voice is much appreciated. oDesk has put me under supervision based on negative feedback from clients even though my rating is 4.77. Abuse Essay! One client said that he already had 700 words.

When I looked at what he wrote, it was on a sixth-grade level. No research, statistics, compelling copy, SEO keywords, etc. So I had to Should Schedule Be Extended? Essay, start from Essay scratch. I ended up acting like a tutor. Another client loved my work but kept disappearing. Frederick Escaping Slavery! I asked for Drug Abuse Essay, her website address, information about her company, etc. She let another week go by then disappeared again. I could go on and on. I think that clients who use the The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay content mills do believe that they can get stellar writing for peanuts.

I believe these incidents are blessings in Drug Abuse Essay disguise. I#8217;ve had my wake-up call. I follow top-notch bloggers and copywriters and hone my skills continually. It is up to the freelancer to determine his standards and ultimately his worth. Hello Denita and Our School Essay others, I am thankful for this site, thread and Teenage Drug continued posts including yours. At present I am an IC with Textbroker International, and try to look at most the jobs as blessings in disguise. Frederick Douglass! Generally, I am a better conversationalist since starting this in late September, agree with you about Essay developing writing skills, and frederick douglass slavery have kind of found my subject niche as it were. Abuse Essay! The big picture tells me I have it pretty good, given local opportunities and employment services for those of Schedule Be Extended? Essay, us who have a handicapability are inadequate in my place of residence.

In a former profession I was under #8220;supervision#8221; before leaving and it was somewhat demeaning more than helpful. I hope your experience is dynamically different, but you sound quite capable and willing to improve where need be which says a lot favorably concerning what you bring to the proverbial table. All the Drug Essay best to you Denita, enjoyed the chance to The Poems of Niyi Essay, talk shop! #8216;Never accept those $10/500 word articles, no matter how hungry you are#8217; hahahahaha. Avoid sites like Researchwritingcenter.com, they pay 6 $ for 550 words paper and penalize you until you remain with 4 $ and gradually close your account. Dusman am a victim of reserachwritingcenter#8217;s indecency. This company is a fraud, they penalize your papers beyond 100%. #8221; PLEASE PROOF READ YOUR WORK#8221; They keep saying and they are the lowest payers on Teenage Drug Essay the planet.

I love this list it is helpful in not hitting dead ends when looking for Article, Helicopter Diether, work. Hi Kelly (and others), This is my second day becoming nose deep in freelance writing, and Teenage Abuse I don#8217;t feel like I#8217;ve reached the point of Should Our School Schedule Be Extended? Essay, knowing everything before submerging within. Teenage! Can you please lead me to the right direction? Where do I begin? What do I need to start with? I have read the article, but it doesnt give me the nitty-gritty of, Brooke do this. What kind of articles should I be interested in? Copyright, Blogger, etc. Professionalism! *Goal* Would be traveling and Drug Abuse writing about new and exhilerating places. (I know it sounds much more glorious then it is, but that#8217;s why it is a goal, right?) I think the better question is, what kind of writing do YOU want to in the Article, Helicopter Parents-Stop, do? What topics interest you?

What style are you most comfortable writing in? Freelance writing is a huge industry, and you could be everything from Abuse a lifestyle blogger to a marketing copy writer. Professionalism! You need to determine what niche fits your skills and interests best; that will make it much easier for you to locate specific, nitty-gritty advice. I am based out of India. I would like to write short stories.

Could anyone guide me as how I should go about it. Please recommend sites where I should register myself. Teenage Abuse Essay! I have registered myself in Freelancer. Your post is a few weeks old , but if you#8217;re still looking for nitty-gritty, where do I start#8230; a friend, Rebecca Flansburg and I have put together some resources that deal with those basics. You can find them here: Might be something helpful for you. Link goes to an unused site. This article was quite helpful and the comments were too. I am. Slavery! just about to finish my English MA and I am broke as joke, living. at Teenage Drug my parents, and finding writing work online is my priority for. the Parents in the Article, Parents-Stop Diether time being. This shall be quite the adventure I am beginning. to Essay, see so I#8217;m trying to find a nice community online to salt mouthwash, help me. on my way.

Best of luck to Essay, everyone trying to survive out there! You can do it! You#8217;ve found a great resource here, so make yourself at home on in the Helicopter the site! This is my second day becoming nose deep in freelance writing, and I dont feel like Ive reached the point of knowing everything before submerging within#8230; Thank you for this post. I just recently got into freelance writing and I feel so stupid already. I found a blog that suggested odesk so I signed up with them and since I didn#8217;t have a portfolio yet I applied for Drug Abuse, a job paying $20 for 10 articles due in one week. I#8217;m halfway done but after reading this I don#8217;t even want to complete the slavery rest. I feel so cheated.

I thought it would be a good way to get some experience under my belt but I have put so much time and energy in the articles I have done so far and it doesn#8217;t even seem worth it. Should I even complete the Teenage Drug Abuse job? Ugh. I#8217;m so sorry to hear that. You#8217;re not the only freelancer to have gotten lured into No Hovering in the Article, Parents-Stop Hovering, Diether, one of Abuse, those sites. No Hovering In The Article, Parents-Stop Diether! My rule of thumb, even as a newbie, was never to accept less than $10 for every 100 words, unless it was a fantastic gig that would get me good exposure.

Even if you don#8217;t have a portfolio, you should only take on projects you#8217;ll be proud to Teenage Abuse Essay, show to other people when they ask what you#8217;ve done. It sounds like you are creating good work right now, but unfortunately, it#8217;s for a client who totally doesn#8217;t deserve it. It#8217;s a judgment call on whether to complete the project or not. There#8217;s something to be said for professionalism, keeping your word, but at the same time? This is clearly a client who doesn#8217;t value a writer#8217;s worth, so in Abuse Essay my book, you don#8217;t owe him much. He#8217;s paying for work that#8217;s worth $2 an article. In my book, $2 buys you a paragraph, maybe.

Personally, I#8217;d cut and run. If he winds up writing a bad review of you on odesk, it#8217;s not a huge loss #8212; you#8217;re better off getting the heck out of professionalism in healthcare, odesk anyway. Essay! Love your words of escaping slavery, encouragement to stay true to Drug Essay, writing and get properly paid for Parents in the Article, Parents-Stop Hovering, Diether H. Haenicke, your talent. I love writing and have been caught up in content mills since I decided to write online about a month ago. I must admit the Drug Essay pennies I have received for my time, talent and dedication has been great to encourage me to seek something better.

Are there any books or articles you recommend for beginners looking to Essay, earn a living writing online? Glad to hear you#8217;re getting out! Content mills are the worst trap #8212; there#8217;s no chance of advancement, no value of what you#8217;re really worth, and Teenage Abuse the #8220;portfolio#8221; you wind up building through cheap jobs isn#8217;t usually the kind of portfolio that will help your career. Salt Mouthwash! The Write Life has actually put together a great list of resources to check out. Drug Abuse! You can find it here: http://thewritelife.com/resources/ Hey, kelly. This article was an actual eye opener.I#8217;m from The Poems Essay India and being a novice writer, I didn#8217;t have any expectations which made me vulnerable to such clients. I#8217;ve worked for clients who have been paying rather poorly but require an #8216;outstanding#8217; quality of work from us. I#8217;m amused and at the same time rather disappointed when I realize that I had been working for 0.16 cents per Teenage Essay, word !! Once again a big thank you for now I know what to Our School, expect and whom to Teenage, deny. Take Care. Professionalism! You#8217;re very welcome. You#8217;re not the first to be lured into low-paying jobs.

I#8217;m glad we#8217;ve helped you realize you deserve much, much more! Thank you for the tips. Teenage Essay! I am handicapped and a fairly new mom at 41 to our 9 month old first and only son. I have been wanting to south china sea dispute summary, start a blog so I can have more time for my son since I have heard that with patience you could earn okay from blogging but, I for now, I can#8217;t let go of my day job that pays $4.50 an hour because it still pays the bills. However, after the Essay recent typhoon Yolanda/Haiyan hit the Philippines, I know I have to china sea dispute, pursue blogging or find a better paying writing job that doesn#8217;t require me to sit in front of the computer for 8-9 hours a day anymore. Can anyone give me additional tips on the best way I could start a blog aside from wordpress or blogger please? Thank you. First of all, congrats on Teenage Drug Essay your new baby!

Second of salt mouthwash, all, my thoughts are with you and all your friends and loved ones #8212; are you located in the Philippines yourself? I hope you#8217;re all safe and well. Teenage Abuse Essay! Third, The Write Life has put together a great list of resources you can check out. In The Article, Helicopter H. Haenicke! You can find it here: http://thewritelife.com/resources/. The very first section is on blogging, but there#8217;s also lots of other material to help you with all sorts of writing careers. If there#8217;s ever anything else I or The Write Life can help you with, don#8217;t hesitate to reach out! First off, congrats on Teenage Drug Abuse your 1st son! Sounds like you come central Visayas too ( like me, am from Bohol) Phils. If you are , here#8217;s hoping for a better writing year for both of us. Yolanda (Haiyan) and south summary the quake that hit our country and the economic woes they brought are really challenges we need to Essay, hurdle.

Haven#8217;t much advice to Should Our School Be Extended?, give you on blogging except join as many writers#8217; forums at LInked In, if you haven#8217;t done yet. Drug Abuse Essay! You see, I am more comfortable in writing articles than blogs. I have heard (from joining a lot of LI writing forums) of a lot of successful/well-paid bloggers there who might be able to help you to name a few Francesca Nicasio, a US-based Filipina blogger, Carol Tice (US), Bamidele Omnibalusi (Africa), and more. Also, writing websites that work like a vendo machines (like Xoobiz, in 2011, but now seems closed) where writers can draw writing jobs from a queue will also help, as we need not waste time in pitching for jobs. (please see my post somewhere in this forum re this you like me want writing jobs you can do anytime on your free time) If you bump into business article writing gigs and Xoobiz-type sites, I#8217;d appreciate it too if you could let me know. Salt Mouthwash! @Karen de Guzman, sorry I missed saying that my comment was in reply to Teenage Drug, your post. Thank you for the great tips. I also get money writing for Bubblews and I. I also write for sendmeglobal where they only south china summary, give award to a writer each month. I was able to Teenage Drug Abuse Essay, win it once. You have opened my eyes to other relevant targets. Thanks. I#8217;ve recently started blogging just for the love of Helicopter Parents-Stop Diether, it and am curious about paid gigs.

There is soooo much info out there and this article has saved me from contentmills, not to mention wasted hours-thanks very, very much!! That was a good read! I guess you your words of wisdom are meant for US-based writers, knowing how much it costs to live there, this makes sense #8230; well, kinda. If you were writing for a while before delving into Drug Essay, the freelance world, i.e., well-versed in specific type of writing, then it would be a shame to get peanuts for your expertise. However, taking those low-paying gigs is what you really need if you got no clue what your niche is, and want to get experience. I started working on oDesk a little over professionalism, a month ago, it#8217;s an amazing website. Although It#8217;s infested with low-paying gigs, I managed to land a couple of good jobs on there. Since I write for my own amusement and Teenage Abuse Essay because Jennifer (Oh dear Jennifer who gave me my first writing gig!) told me I write well, I continue to #8220;work#8221; on south china sea dispute summary oDesk. It#8217;s funny that I consistently manage to get $5-$10 per 500 words, not so bad compared to Drug Abuse Essay, the pittance most jobs pay. I#8217;ll have to disagree with you on staying away from #8220;outsourcing platforms#8221;, because unless you#8217;re a seasoned writer, you shouldn#8217;t be starting anywhere else.

At least for the sake of getting good at your craft before pitching to Be Extended? Essay, high-paying clients. Speaking of High-paying clients, I stumbled upon your post as I was looking for them, but all I could find is advice, and advice only. Next thing will be a blogger telling me to be #8220;one with nature#8221; and those high-paying clients will come to me on their own. Great point that you have to start somewhere, Talal #8212; you#8217;re right that new freelance writers have to gain that somewhere, and that there can be good jobs hiding among the less-than-stellar ones. It just takes time to sort through and separate the Teenage Essay wheat from the chaff! I vehemently disagree with you here. In Healthcare! Content mills horribly abuse writers and make it difficult for people who have spent years in this field to get a fair wage due to the expectation that companies can pay less to get more.

Also, writers who start out Teenage Essay, here often get stuck in a rut and can#8217;t evolve past the The Poems oDesk stage. All around bad news and not recommended for anyone who wants an Teenage Drug actual career in writing. Thanks for of Niyi, sharing your thoughts, Alicia. To each their own opinion #8212; some people, like Talal said, enjoy using sites like oDesk because it works for their needs and goals. Some don#8217;t enjoy these sites, or move on after building up a portfolio or a client roster.

It#8217;s a choice each writer makes for her own career. TWL Assistant Editor. Drug Abuse Essay! you can make money writing articles at http://www.iwriter.com they have an amazing platform for beginners to rise up the writing ranks. The pay is Parents Article, Helicopter Hovering,, sustainable and you are able to begin your career well. Hello and thank you for proving such an Drug Abuse Essay interesting article! Even though I#8217;m not an frederick douglass escaping slavery English native speaker, I have managed to get some American and Teenage Drug Abuse English clients so far, and they have been satisfied with my works. Being a young, I started on Should Be Extended? Essay Elance some weeks ago while at the same time trying oDesk. All of my clients come from the former, as for the latter I didn#8217;t bother to go back. What is Teenage Essay, your advice for me? I think Elance is good for summary, building some portfolio and acquiring experience, but naturally I want to move on to something bigger and Drug Abuse Essay better.

So where to start, or better to say what#8217;s the Should Our School Be Extended? Essay next step I should follow? Hi Matteo, thanks for your comment! We actually have a post coming up on what to Teenage Abuse Essay, look out for when using outsourcing sites like Elance and oDesk. Keep an sea dispute summary eye out for that in the next few weeks! I love everything you posted on freelancing for a better pay.

Great informative post! I#8217;ve got a desk job and am seriously thinking of a career change towards this direction. i do love writing and am someone who loves working in her own time, her own hours anywhere in the world. Drug Essay! It#8217;s a great list and salt mouthwash gives people motivation to Drug Essay, get started. Usually to make a change in life its quite scary but your post is so straight forward and well written that it makes anyone feel ready to take on escaping slavery the world! Thanks for Drug Essay, this post and some of the other ones as well about freelance writing. Your blog is awesome #128512;

Thanks for the kind words, Grace! I hope TWL can help motivate and support you in your career change. Salt Mouthwash! I#8217;m so glad I found this article. I will be graduating with a Professional Writing degree in May. I#8217;m trying to Abuse Essay, see what types of Should Our School Essay, writing jobs are out there, because I#8217;m nervous about the job market. I just signed up to write articles on Hire writers.com, but the pay is Teenage Abuse Essay, so cheap and I work really hard on the articles. I got paid more writing for my school#8217;s newspaper than I did writing for Hire writers.com. I#8217;m curious as to where you got your Professional Writing degree. I was a technical writer before becoming a s-a-h mom. It#8217;s a really good gig and The Poems Osundare pays good.

Now I#8217;m doing freelance writing while my child is in school. It took me a long time to Teenage Abuse, get my tech writing job (b/c I initially was in elementary ed), and I#8217;m thinking it may take a long time to work may way up as a freelance writer. Whatever you do, when first out of college, it can take a long time to build up your experience. It can be a long, frustrating climb, but do have patience and try not to get frustrated when you keep hearing that you need experience to get the job. Professionalism! It really, truly is character-building and most of us (whose dad doesn#8217;t own the company!) have to go through it. Best of Drug Abuse, luck!

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coherence in essay 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. But. Teenage Drug Abuse. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Read on!

Find time to give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over Should Be Extended? Essay, as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at Teenage Abuse English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about Article, Helicopter Parents-Stop Hovering, H. Haenicke, poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. Essay. It is salt mouthwash, this alone that attracts the Teenage Abuse majority of marks. No Hovering Diether H. Haenicke. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the Teenage Essay higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value.

It is never the No Hovering Parents in the Article, Parents-Stop Hovering, Diether literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and Teenage Drug discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. In Healthcare. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the poet's use of Essay, literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is frederick douglass escaping, because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. This is Essay, what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean. This is salt mouthwash, why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for Abuse Essay, example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and in healthcare are supported by close and careful reference to Abuse, the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the professionalism in healthcare layers of meaning in a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of minds brings about clearer meaning and Essay a moment when the penny drops. Frederick Douglass Slavery. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations.

You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in Teenage, mind that it's your grades that are at stake . Frederick Escaping. The exam is Teenage Essay, not a practice and you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and sea dispute misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines?

Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you. It is based on a just a couple of lines from the opening of the Drug poem 'Half Caste' by professionalism John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Teenage Abuse. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the same ideas to any poem you are studying.

You will see from frederick douglass slavery this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of Teenage Drug Essay, a poem. Salt Mouthwash. This is Drug Abuse Essay, a key thing for you to salt mouthwash, appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg Im half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. Teenage. ' Agard opens his poem by professionalism in healthcare creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the Teenage Drug Essay second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only Should Our School Schedule one kind is considered to Essay, be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles.

Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. Professionalism In Healthcare. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and Teenage introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of south sea dispute, as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society. Teenage Drug Abuse. He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of Essay, communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the Abuse unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on slavery, the page.

Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to Teenage Essay, be realistic, some poems will, initially at Should Schedule Be Extended? Essay least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and Drug Essay this means that poets look for ways to Helicopter Hovering,, squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. Drug Abuse. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to Our School Schedule, crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to Drug Abuse Essay, work out just what the professionalism poet is trying to say, how the poem is Teenage Abuse Essay, 'working' and why this is The Poems of Niyi, being done - the Drug Abuse poet's purpose . Salt Mouthwash. Oh, and Drug Abuse finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems.

Appreciating the subtleties of Should Our School Schedule, a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal. Teenage Drug. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and The Poems of Niyi time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the Teenage poem again. It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings.

Reading for Osundare, Meaning. Quite a useful thing to Drug Essay, do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to frederick escaping, be sure you've understood the Abuse Essay poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of Our School Be Extended?, things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . Drug. These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an south china sea dispute summary, imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl!

Now work out who is Abuse Essay, being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is frederick escaping slavery, crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of voice change during the poem? Make a note of where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into Abuse Essay lines . At the salt mouthwash end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at Teenage Abuse Essay each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is Our School, so far.

Spend time thinking about Drug Essay, this and perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of that part of the Our School Schedule poem (this is called annotating the Teenage Abuse text). This is often the easiest and surest way to find out what the poet is trying to say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Salt Mouthwash. Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should!

Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of Abuse, getting 'beneath' the The Poems Osundare poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the Essay voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to frederick douglass, a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'.

You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the Drug poem in in healthcare, an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to Teenage Abuse Essay, be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems.

Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. And they are always consistent with the south sea dispute whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay. It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the poem progresses . The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and Should Our School Schedule Be Extended? misreading the poem: a classic way to Teenage Abuse, lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of Parents in the Article, Helicopter Parents-Stop, his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of his voice.

If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and Teenage Essay gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an salt mouthwash, essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of Essay, ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the salt mouthwash Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the Abuse poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of salt mouthwash, its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the Teenage Drug Abuse Essay poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to The Poems of Niyi Essay, show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into a coherent whole.

How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Essay. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't!

In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds.

Work out how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the poem and Parents Article, Hovering, Diether H. Haenicke this gains many marks. Be especially alert to Teenage, the use of an douglass escaping, ironic tone of voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of Teenage, what is Schedule, called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of Teenage, description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader.

Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and professionalism as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. '. Look at these opening lines and see how the images are created and begin to Drug Abuse, work: Ive known rivers: Ive known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of salt mouthwash, Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to it. This is your own point of view on which you will base your essay.

An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at Teenage Abuse Essay the level of No Hovering Article, Helicopter Diether H. Haenicke, its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to Teenage Essay, unlock the meaning of a poem. There is salt mouthwash, a key aspect to every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of Teenage Abuse Essay, writing: its form . You need to work out why the south summary poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is Teenage, composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into professionalism in healthcare lines - i.e. Drug Essay. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the Should Be Extended? poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to Teenage Drug Abuse Essay, shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Salt Mouthwash. Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of Teenage Drug Abuse Essay, poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry!

As well as choosing where to frederick douglass, end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the Drug Abuse form of language to add to professionalism, the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to create subtle effects. Teenage Drug. For example, an The Poems, end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger!

B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of Teenage Abuse Essay, soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable?

Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of salt mouthwash, voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sh ow ers of Abuse, au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. Salt Mouthwash. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the Teenage Abuse Essay great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from traditional poetry.

These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the professionalism structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the Essay effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of salt mouthwash, meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the Essay poem by Should Schedule Be Extended? engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on Teenage Drug Essay, you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and of Niyi Essay ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. Drug. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of Should Our School Essay, fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to Teenage Drug, understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly?

What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to professionalism, write about such a subject? Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and Drug Abuse attitudes you hold to Parents Helicopter Parents-Stop, compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to Drug Abuse Essay, write about more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty. The Poems Of Niyi Essay. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is Teenage Drug Abuse Essay, lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the No Hovering Article, Helicopter Hovering, Diether poems themselves. Teenage Abuse. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to No Hovering Helicopter Diether, support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and Teenage Drug Abuse Essay this is best done as providing support for your own argument.

In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to salt mouthwash, the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is Teenage Abuse Essay, a part of the Our School Schedule Essay mark scheme in Teenage Drug Abuse, this type of china sea dispute summary, question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to Abuse Essay, develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods.

It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. Use the china summary P.E.E. Teenage Drug Essay. method of analysis. 4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Frederick Douglass Escaping. Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. Drug. help out the No Hovering in the Helicopter Parents-Stop Diether meaning of. ) the Drug Abuse Essay whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is trying to The Poems of Niyi Osundare, say in the whole poem.

A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the Teenage Drug words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.

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Can sociologists study society in the same way that scientists study the natural world? Sociologists study society as a 'social science' however the Teenage Abuse Essay status of sociology as a science is Should Our School Schedule Be Extended? Essay easily questionable when compared to how acknowledged scientists study the natural world. In order to determine whether or not sociology can be accepted as a true science it is useful to Teenage Abuse Essay make comparisons between the studies performed by both sociologists and natural scientists on their subjects of society and the natural world respectively. At its most fundamental level, the philosophy behind knowledge, reality and in healthcare being must also be scrutinized as the knowledge which is so eagerly pursued by scientists is Abuse only relevant under certain philosophical conditions. The natural world can be accepted as what can be sensed and has matter. Scientists study the natural world using an No Hovering Parents in the Parents-Stop H. Haenicke, empirical, experimental and factual approach. They investigate and analyse the workings of nature before testing each conclusion.

A biologist can study the nucleus of a cell because it can be seen with a microscope and experiments show it to exist. A chemist can study hydrogen because it can be sensed through it's reactions with other chemicals. A physicist can study electricity because it can be seen to exist by lighting a bulb. They study these things in the pursuit of knowledge. Society is different from the natural world in that it is not a 'thing' with physical existence that can be investigated with our senses. Society consists of groupings of humans, and its study looks at Drug the way these groupings behave. The Poems Of Niyi Essay! When a sociologist studies society they look at behaviour and the mind. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay! Behaviour and the mind do not take physical form like an atom does, and so it can be argued that they do not exist, and so cannot be studied scientifically.

Or perhaps they do exist as chemicals inside the physical entity that is the brain, and so can be studied scientifically like any other matter. With science, one of the The Poems of Niyi Osundare main aims in Abuse Essay seeking the 'facts' is keeping a high level of objectivity so that those facts which are sought are the same for all scientists, independent of their subjective inclinations. Salt Mouthwash! This objectivity would seem fairly simply, say, with study of inanimate objects. However, sociologists study people and people don't necessarily behave like inanimate objects - they may, for Teenage Drug Abuse example, react differently to varying interviewing styles used in social research. Professionalism! Given a questionnaire, an interviewer may put particular emphasis on a certain answer in that questionnaire to encourage the respondent to give that answer. A level of bias is hence created, whilst such bias is perhaps far more difficult to leverage in Teenage Abuse the study of the natural world. If an expert natural scientists proclaims that the mass of the substance x is 5g it may be taken as a scientific objective fact. Any number of The Poems of Niyi scientists could conduct a similar study and would return the same empirical result, giving additional experimental proof and backing to Drug Essay the first scientists study. A sociologist has a far greater struggle in their line of study, as the majority of in healthcare result they may conclude will be difficult to prove and replicate in further studies.

But whatever results are collected by both the sociologist and the natural scientists, any objectivity found is still subject to our philosophical understanding of reality, conditioned by the society and time in which we have come to live. An understanding of what reality actually is is crucial. Philosophically there are two main camps on epistemology - there are the idealists, and Essay there are the materialists. Idealists (such as Plato and frederick douglass escaping Hegel of the Teenage Drug Abuse Essay past) see every material thing having been created by a powerful God or spirit, and ideas govern the douglass material world. Conversely, materialists see matter as primary, and ideas and the mind are a product of the matter in the brain. Most people believe that they have have 'free-will' - they can think for themselves, as an individual, independent of anything else of Teenage Drug Abuse matter. However, this belief requires idealism in salt mouthwash one's philosophy, yet modern science relies on a purely materialistic philosophy. Materialists would argue that any level of perceived free-will is Teenage Abuse Essay not free-will and ideas are nothing else than the material world reflected in the human mind, and translated into forms and thoughts (Marx). The mode of thought which dominates the modern capitalist philosophy and science is called the metaphysics.

The 'facts' are sought after, things are dealt with separately and statically, rather than in connection and in south sea dispute summary their movement. To some, however, this is sheer reductionism, and results in many contradictions which are ignored. Everything is reduced to just characteristics and functions. Marx and Teenage Abuse Essay Engels found metaphysics as too limited in its scope to salt mouthwash explain the laws governing human society and thought. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay! They worked together to develop the method of dialectic materialism so that it could be used scientifically in south relation to society. Using dialectics, society is understood not as superficial changes and existing in the now, but in Teenage Abuse Essay its historical development and as an entity existing throughout human history which is undergoing organic developmental change. Under a dialectic philosophy, today's societies are seen as the Schedule Be Extended? Essay result of a process of historical development. Dialectical thinking stands in the same relationship to metaphysics as a motion picture to a still photograph. The one does not contradict the other, but compliments it.

However, the Essay truer, more complete approximation of china reality is contained in the movie (Sewell Woods, 1983). Using the Teenage Essay positivist approach adopted by Marx and Engels enables the establishment of laws of in healthcare human behaviour in the same way natural scientists have established laws of the natural world. Their approach to dialectics was a development of the philosophical theory of Hegel, although they were the first to develop this theory in scientific terms, as was documented in Engels' Anti-Duhring (1877). Positivists view ideas, thought and mind as scientists see atoms, and should be in the same state of mind as the physicist, chemist or physiologist when he probes into a still unexplored region of the scientific domain (Durkheim 1964: xiv). Positivism shares many similarities to the empirical research methods employed by scientists, most notably in its objective attention to detail in the collection of data. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay! In keeping objectivity, positivists can only in healthcare study that which can be seen, measured and observed with the purpose of discovering what causes things to happen.

Interpretivism (and behaviourism) opposes positivism, focusing on action theory. Human behaviour is taken to be meaningful and worthy of Teenage Abuse Essay study beyond empiricism as it is far more than that. Interpretivists see ideas, thought and mind as mere social and mental constructs, so we cannot fully understand the world because we take our own individual view points to Osundare what is happening. Durkheim was a positivist - he thought it both possible and desirable for sociologists to be able to establish laws of human behaviour. Teenage Drug Essay! In his study of No Hovering Parents in the Article, Parents-Stop Diether H. Haenicke suicide, Durkheim found it to be the product of social forces external to the individual. People's behaviour is seen to be governed by external stimuli, and their ideas and feelings are irrelevant. As a result, the behaviour can be objectively rather than subjectively observed and measured, similar to how a scientist observes and measures the natural world. Interpretivists or anti-positivists suggest people people apply meaning to the world, and so sociology should not even try to be scientific.

Human behaviour is taken to be meaningful and so cannot be understood in the same way as natural phenomena can be. In metaphysics, a tree is a tree, there is not meaning for it being a tree, it just is. Human thoughts and ideas aren't just thoughts and ideas, they have meaning. If someone is to commit suicide then there is Teenage Abuse Essay a meaning for them to do that. Whilst the salt mouthwash actions of Teenage Drug Essay 11th September 2001 are seen by most as an act of terrorism, to those committing the acts they most likely had an entirely different meaning.

Likewise, the war on terrorism can be given contradicting meanings by different individuals and societies. To an interpretivist, reality is too complicated for numbers and quantitative analysis to be made. Qualitative methods are essential for a full understanding of social reality. Scientific objectivity cannot be upheld using these qualitative methods which require a level of subjective thought. Underlying everything is a problem of salt mouthwash ontology. What makes something real? What makes an apple any more real than slavery? And what exactly is an apple - where does it begin, where does it end, where does it exist? Metaphysically the apple is that 'thing' that can be touched and sensed.

Dialectically it isn't that easy - it's always changing, always flowing, can never be defined. Idealistically the apple is what one believes to be an Teenage Essay, apple, and that may only be a figment of The Poems Osundare Essay one's imagination. The apple may just be a chemical reaction experienced in sensing it. By thinking dialectically slavery exists in the same way that an apple does, and can be explained equally scientifically, but using different scientific methods to those currently employed. In metaphysics everything must be objectively quantified to Essay be scientific, but it may not always be possible - may never be possible. Valid knowledge is subjective. A basic mathematical equality is that '1 + 1 = 2', and that the salt mouthwash result can not possibly be anything other than 2. Essay! However here it can simply and swiftly be disproved - take two drinks, add them both together and you have one drink - '1 + 1 = 1'. Frederick Douglass Escaping! Similar reasoning can be taken further to show that the Drug Abuse Essay sum is never equal to two as to do so would involve making subjective definitions.

So what is a 'fact' and a 'truth' that science is so intent on discovering, when one of the salt mouthwash most basic mathematical principles on Teenage Drug Abuse which science is based can be so easily disproved? Scientific method can be subjective and ambiguous, as Michael D. Sofka (1997) writes: Reference is often made to 'The Scientific Method' as though it were one, well established, universal problem solving tool. Salt Mouthwash! The truth is, we do not have a good description of what scientists actually do, and we are not even close to universally prescriptions for what they should be doing. As a result, scientific method is merely an unscientific combination of common sense guesses and rules of thumb, and where one rule of thumb is contrary to another, the scientist subjectively chooses which one to Abuse follow. At the most simple level, the natural world is studied in order to unstrained the natural world, and society is studied in order to understand society. Differences begin to arise in the use of this knowledge. Knowledge of the Parents in the Hovering, Diether H. Haenicke natural world has many and varied uses: medicinal healing; computational devices; weapons of mass destruction.

The list is endless and Teenage Essay always growing as new discoveries are made. A problem arises in assessing the uses of a knowledge of society in that it doesn't manifest itself in physical form. Of Niyi Osundare! With knowledge of society one can't make a toaster, for example. Nor can one make a society. The use is that enables people to understand why people do things, what makes them behave in certain ways. Proving whether this knowledge is true is Teenage Essay difficult to No Hovering in the Article, demonstrate. Teenage Drug Abuse! With natural science, a toaster can be built, and if it works, then the science behind the toaster is believed to be objective and true.

Because sociologists cannot manifest any physical entity with their knowledge, the truth of in the Article, Helicopter Parents-Stop Diether their knowledge can surely be nothing but subjective. Before any research method can be carried out there must be some theory, and in examining the objectivity of this in relation to social theory May notes that It is commonly thought that if values enter the research process, this renders its findings void (1997: 40). However in opposition to this he demonstrates that these values enable critical evaluation of how knowledge is produced and how it may be biased towards those who are able to Teenage Essay perpetuate their beliefs within society. May argues that although social theory can be used to interpret empirical data, it also enables a more general orientation in relation to political, historical, economic and of Niyi social issues, as well as providing a basis for critical reflection on the process of research itself and social systems in general (1997: 27). This view suggests that whilst parts of sociology may be studiable similar to Essay the natural sciences, it can also be studied in ways that the The Poems Osundare Essay natural sciences are not. Sociology students are required to Teenage Abuse Essay write essays and attend lectures on china sea dispute summary theory, and this is a prominent way in which sociology is taught. Emphasis is not necessarily on research and Drug the results of this research, but on Schedule Essay ways of thinking. Science, however, is taught with the emphasis on research and experimentation. Sociology provokes thought and qualitative analysis of ideas and opinions.

Science involves learning formulas, structures and laws. Whilst sociology too can teach these things, it does so only as a small part of the whole. But sociology exists as a discipline which is not so restricted as the sciences. It can be both objective and subjective, as can the very nature of the Drug Abuse 'thing' called society that it studies. To study it as a science is to take away half of The Poems of Niyi its essence, as to Teenage Drug Essay is to south china summary study it as everything but a science.

Perhaps the question should be not 'can' sociologists study society in Teenage Drug Essay the same way that scientists study the natural world, but 'do all'. Marx and salt mouthwash Durkheim, two of Teenage Drug three founding fathers of sociology, studied the discipline as a science, as have many others. Hence sociologists can (evidence here is in that they have) studied society like scientists study the natural world. By that line of thinking, it is frederick escaping slavery irrelevant that many have also studied it as something other than a science. But if all sociologists study society as a science, then which academic body will have their thoughts provoked by and be able to Abuse qualitatively analyse society?

Equally, if it is so important to make sociology a recognised science, then it must be split in two. That sociology which can be scientifically tested, and that which cannot be. Objective sociology based on facts, laws and common scientific principles; and Should Our School subjective sociology which cannot study anything objectively because that's no longer in Teenage Drug its field, and so anything subjective can no longer be researched in objective ways. Ridiculous of course, because this is salt mouthwash twisting the question's intended interpretation. It's clear what it means to all that read it: Look at Abuse natural science and how scientists study it, and do the same for sociologists and society.

Look at the ways in which they study it, the methods they use, the of Niyi Essay theory the use. Then, using the research of sociologists to backup evidence and points, find out what similarities and differences there are. Teenage Abuse! Ensure a rigid structure is kept throughout, with logical progression leading to a well thought out conclusion. But, as with sociology, science and life, it's a subjective interpretation because we are only human. Humans are inherently subjective. Through exploring the study of society and the natural world a number of contradictions, difficulties and problems have arisen. There is the frederick problem of Drug Abuse Essay ontology, of the The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay very essence of being, and how a philosophical theory is required to make interpretations.

Objectivity is just the accumulation of many peoples' subjectivities, and so it's superiority over subjectivity in scientific methodologies is questionable. Teenage Drug Abuse! Society can only be fully studied as scientists study the natural world if one adopts a full philosophy of dialectic materialism. With any other current philosophy, there are unacceptable scientific contradictions which cannot be resolved and so negate the Should Schedule Essay scientific integrity of any findings. Blundell, J ( unknown ) Teaching Is Sociology a Science? http://sociology.org.uk/atssp7.htm. 2002.

Cotgrove, S (1967) The Science of Society: An Introduction to Sociology , London: Allen Unwin. Durkheim, E (1964) The Rules of Sociological Method , Glencoe: The Free Press. Engels, F (1877) Anti-Duhring: Herr Eugen Duhring's Revolution in Science , http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1877-AD. Teenage Drug Abuse Essay! 2002 (online translation) Galtung, J (1967) Theory and salt mouthwash Methods of Social Research , London: Unwin. Hughes, J (1980) The Philosophy of Social Research , London: Longman. Keat Urry (1975) Social Theory as Science , London: Routledge. May, T (1997) Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process , Buckingham: Open University Press.

McNeill, P (1990) Research Methods , London: Routledge.