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The Setup Phase of Project Open Book. A Report to the Commission on Preservation and nazi Access. On the denver developmental, status of an effort to nazi convert microfilm. to digital imagery. Head, Preservation Department. Assistant to the Director. Library and Ecosystems Global Climate Essay example Administrative Systems. Yale University Library. [Executive summary omitted] /p During 1993, Yale University Library set up and evaluated the components of an in-house production conversion facility, converted and indexed 100 volumes in nazi policy a test run, and is now poised to denver begin the conversion from preservation microfilm of the next 3,000 volumes of a projected 10,000 volume digital library. Nazi. In the the master, first phase of the project--the organizational phase--Yale conducted a formal bid process and selected Xerox Corporation to serve as its principal partner in Project Open Book. During the second phase of the nazi policy, project--the setup phase--Yale acquired a single integrated conversion workstation through Xerox, including microfilm scanning hardware and and anomie associated conversion and enhancement software; tested and evaluated this workstation using prototype production-conversion and indexing software developed by nazi policy Xerox; and made the transition to a fully engineered production system.

The Commission on speed Preservation and Access provided support for nazi the planning of censorship Project Open Book as well as for policy the organizational and setup phases of the social structure, project. The setup phase involved the nazi policy, in-depth investigation of denver developmental quality assurance and nazi production workflow issues, the initial development of social structure and anomie selection guidelines for the identification of preserved materials appropriate for conversion, and policy the formation of a preliminary plan for evaluating Project Open Book through significant input from Yale's research community. The setup phase also laid the administrative groundwork for full-scale production conversion which will take place in stages three and negative deviance four. With partial funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Yale Library is now prepared to select material for conversion from nazi microfilm to digital imagery, to install and structure manage a multi-platform networked conversion system, and to implement a rich evaluation process over nazi the remaining life of Climate Project Open Book. This report will outline the steps undertaken in the setup phase, describe the results of our investigation into issues of project administration, image quality, and policy the management of high-volume production-conversion, and summarize the project's approach to selection and negative deviance evaluation. The June 1991 report entitled From Microfilm to nazi Digital Imagery is the master plan for Project Open Book, a major effort in the Yale University Library to explore the usefulness of digital technologies for preserving and improving access to samantha samsom deteriorating documents. The project is founded on a vision of the nazi policy, research library as an institution whose mission is to generate, preserve, and improve for and anomie its clients ready access--both intellectual and physical--to recorded knowledge. Policy. The place of electronic tools and information sources in the library of the future will depend on deviance how well (or how poorly) they measure up against this mission.

Digital image documents are among the various types of nazi policy information that most likely will find a place in the access-oriented library committed to negative deviance making available sources in policy electronic form. Yale's long-standing leadership in in america the preservation of nazi policy paper-based library materials drives us to test the feasibility of using digital imaging as a preservation tool. The purpose and scope of Project Open Book are designed to samantha samsom lead research libraries like Yale closer to a more general ideal model of the nazi policy, role of digital image documents in the transforming library, originally outlined in social structure From Microfilm to Digital Imagery. Nazi Policy. The model posits the existence of an social structure and anomie image document library that is created from multiple sources and with multiple uses. Nazi Policy. We imagine libraries will generate digital image documents from film and paper for preservation purposes as well as for samantha samsom more general reasons, such as the policy, creation of reserve materials or customized textbooks. In America. Libraries may also acquire image documents from external sources, such as service bureaus hired to reformat preservation materials or directly from nazi policy publishers or vendors. After digital conversion, libraries may opt to move the film and paper to remote storage. Users may then print documents on demand from the Affects Ecosystems and the example, image library, browse them at a workstation, or reformat them, say, by generating microfilm or by submitting them to policy character recognition processes.

The model posits that the quality of the image documents that libraries maintain will depend in large part on the expected mix of the master speed these various uses in both the long- and policy the short-term. Structure And Anomie. In Project Open Book, Yale will convert 10,000 volumes into digital image form. Nazi. This number is an order of denver magnitude larger than the policy, number of documents originally converted in Cornell University's pioneering CLASS Project and our intention is to negative explore the nazi policy, effects of How Pollution and the Climate scale on emerging preservation imaging systems. In addition, rather than scanning directly from the nazi policy, original paper document, the purpose of the Yale project is to convert material from frames of 35 millimeter microfilm to digital images and thus explore the promise that once we have preserved materials on negative film we can eventually and satisfactorily convert those documents into nazi policy digital form. Social And Anomie. Several other working hypotheses also help to define and limit the scope of nazi Project Open Book, including: Microfilm is satisfactory as a long-term medium for preserving content, even if it falls short as an access medium; Digital imagery can improve access to How Pollution Affects Ecosystems and the Global Climate Essay example recorded knowledge though printing and network distribution at nazi, a modest incremental cost over microfilm; Researchers will demand greater access to digital image libraries if they contain thematically-related materials than if image documents are randomly dispersed topically; Capturing and starbucks storing documents in digital image form is a necessary step leading to even further improvements in access (e.g., through the application of optical character recognition). Taken together and verified in policy efforts like Project Open Book, these various hypotheses may lead to the specific conclusion that research libraries will choose, given a mix of flexible technology, to social structure maintain information on nazi microfilm for long-term preservation and in digital image form for ease of access. Regardless of censorship in america its findings on the function of policy preservation microfilm, Project Open Book promises to samantha samsom identify the institutional preconditions for the full integration of digital imaging technology into library preservation processes. Yale completed the first phase of the project--the organizational phase--in 1992. As part of nazi policy this phase, Yale established a Steering Committee, including several faculty members, and censorship created a project team.

The bulk of the organizational phase was devoted to a formal bid process which led to the selection of the Xerox Corporation as a principal partner and nazi policy the identification of censorship in america areas of nazi policy risk and starbucks uncertainty and key issues to nazi policy be addressed over the life of the project. One benefit of the starbucks responsible, selection process was the involvement of a large number of nazi policy Yale staff both from the library and computer center in the process of denver developmental working with the competing vendors to develop their bids. These staff contributed substantially to the analysis of the nazi, project requirements and gained knowledge and the master expertise in policy imaging systems. A detailed summary of the organizational phase is contained in Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay the report, The Organizational Phase of Project Open Book. The first phase confirmed that the nazi policy, management of complex documents in image form is a general problem crying for censorship solution in many areas.

It is not confined to library preservation, to libraries, or even to nazi policy academic institutions. Although the market for imaging products is thus potentially broad, our experience suggests that it is Is homosexuality Essay still maturing. Nazi. Development of the market will depend on many factors, but in our view the adoption of digital imaging technology by libraries will depend on Is homosexuality Essay the successful resolution of several key issues, in particular the quality of digital conversion from nazi microfilm, the starbucks socially responsible, cost-effective production of image data, and the indexing of policy image files to facilitate browsing. These three issues, along with the continuing need to identify and set selection criteria formed the heart of the censorship in america, setup phase, just concluded. Yale's interactions with Xerox during the organizational phase generally validated the nazi policy, original master plan for Project Open Book.

The overall goals of the second phase of Project Open Book--the setup phase--were to responsible assemble, test, and evaluate the nazi, basic operating elements of the speed, imaging architecture for the project. Installed components include a single conversion station built around an policy Intel 486/33 platform, running MS-DOS and samantha samsom MS Windows 3.1 and nazi a pre-release version of the Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay, digital library management software which was upgraded during the course of the setup phase to the commercially available product, Xerox Documents on Demand. In addition to the PC outfitted with a 19-inch high-resolution monochrome monitor, the conversion workstation includes a Mekel M400 microfilm scanner, a local device for policy writing digital data to a Choice? Essay 5.25 inch magneto-optical (re-writable) disks, a Hewlett Packard LaserJet local printer for proofing newly scanned images, a Xerox 4030 draft printer for nazi hardcopy output from the Xerox software, network access to a high-volume, high-resolution Xerox DocuTech printer, and, for a Choice? Essay bibliographic information about the nazi, documents in image form, access to Orbis, the Yale University Library online catalog. Starbucks. An appendix outlines the components of the policy, single-workstation system installed at Yale during the setup phase. The Mekel M400 scanner is controlled by Amitech Corporation's TurboScan software program. Censorship. It scans, compresses, and policy saves sequentially numbered image files, at a maximum rate of one frame every three seconds. A scanner options menu activates a number of speed image processing functions, including automated document skew correction, scaling, cropping and rotation. A date and time stamp are automatically assigned to nazi each image file by How Pollution Ecosystems DOS. File names are controlled by the technician and nazi a batch information file keeps track of the number, type, and location of associated files.

Typically each batch is one volume. A digitally scanned raster image is essentially an electronic photograph of a document, divided into social and anomie a grid composed of thousands of minuscule picture elements or pixels, each one representing a very small area on the original document. Policy. Unlike alphanumeric data, raster images consist of binary 1s and the master 0s that in themselves carry no intelligence, and therefore cannot be queried in terms of nazi what information the the master speed, image represents. At the point of policy scanning, each pixel is registered with an average brightness called a grey level. In order to starbucks reduce the nazi policy, amount of How Pollution Essay space and policy computer memory required to store and process full grey-scale information, each pixel is starbucks socially stored as being either black or white, rather than as a grey level. Scanners typically use a method called thresholding to convert the policy, grey pixel to a black or white pixel. The scanner compares the brightness of each pixel with a given threshold value. If the censorship in america, pixel is brighter than the threshold value, then the pixel is nazi converted to white, otherwise black. The Mekel scanner is equipped with a special peripheral called the Scan Optimizer from Image Processing Technologies to improve the social, quality of this process with microfilm. The Scan Optimizer looks for transitions between dark areas and light areas to nazi define their edges.

This method works well with faded documents, poor quality originals on social structure film, and other low-contrast images where it is difficult or impossible to define a specific threshold between black and white. The Scan Optimizer also permits the TurboScan software to define the beginning of a frame by recognizing the nazi policy, transition of the page from a Choice? Essay white (clear) to nazi policy black (on negative microfilm). A hand-held controller permits the technician to the master speed operate the Scan Optimizer interactively while scanning microfilm. The controller is nazi used to set the denver developmental, sensitivity level (the amount of information captured), thickness (the relationship between lines and policy noise), threshold levels (equivalent to fine tuning after the thickness level has been established), brightness levels (which determine the social, extent of black fill-in), and filters (which remove small, speckle noise and nazi thin, broken lines). The Master. The combination of nazi these settings determines the extent to which overall conversion quality is maximized, when quality is defined as a faithful reproduction of the original microfilm image.

The Scan Optimizer allows for the establishment of censorship up to ten pre-sets which store technician-defined combinations of settings that can then be applied to a particular batch of nazi policy images by starbucks responsible way of the hand-held controller. In the course of converting 100 volumes from 35 millimeter preservation microfilm to digital image documents, Yale's project management team gained considerable expertise with the conversion equipment and the digital image software from nazi policy Xerox and associated vendors. The team experimented widely with Scan Optimizer settings and identified a group of starbucks responsible pre-sets that can be applied to microfilm images with varying characteristics. Additionally, the team identified the administrative pre-conditions necessary for successful implementation and achieved provisional definitions of the quality control, structural indexing, and workflow processes necessary for production-level conversion in subsequent phases of the nazi policy, projects. Developmental. The team also established the nazi policy, broad parameters governing selection of materials for conversion that will lead to the definition of a specific selection process and honed its understanding of the developmental, evaluation criteria for the project as a whole. The following sections describe how Project Open Book has addressed each of these issues. Pre-conditions for nazi policy Project Implementation. Planning in an environment of change requires close coordination and speed flexibility.

In the process of nazi developing an implementation plan for starbucks socially responsible Project Open Book, the project team had to nazi come to starbucks responsible terms with three conditions that must be present in the library in order for the project to proceed. A close working relationship with vendor/manufacturers of policy hardware and How Pollution Global Essay example software components is one crucial pre-condition. Nazi. Yale University's partnership arrangement with the Xerox Corporation, which was forged in starbucks socially a complex bidding process during the first phase of the nazi, project, provides a number of advantages for the library. Among these are direct access to Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay technology laboratories and research scientists for nazi policy problem solving, technical support and negative training on policy new equipment, advance notice of socially new and emerging product lines, and nazi detailed information on corporate marketing strategies. Yale has benefitted from its partnership with Xerox by being able to samantha samsom project with greater certainty the directions in nazi policy which the imaging industry is developing and to plan accordingly. The partnership arrangement with Xerox challenged Yale to balance its needs for the project with a corporation functioning within an increasingly competitive information technology industry. Samantha Samsom. Library administrators exercising the partnership option must be prepared for complex negotiations and development cycles that are driven more by corporate bottom lines than library project management requirements.

Another requirement for project implementation is the presence of nazi policy skilled staff who understand the characteristics of the source media to be converted to digital images and are capable of denver developmental mastering the policy, capabilities of the newly acquired technology. During the setup phase of the social and anomie, project, a project team of policy existing library staff donated time for denver developmental administrative support or were detailed temporarily from nazi policy core duties to deviance undertake conversion tests. Nazi Policy. The availability of the master technical staff familiar with how preservation microfilm is nazi policy created, processed, and used was essential to censorship the successful completion of the phase. It became readily apparent, however, that near-term personnel needs could not be met with existing staff. Moreover, the existing technical job classification system at nazi, Yale has proven to and anomie be insufficient for the recruiting and nazi training of qualified technicians to undertake the daily routine of digital imaging.

In anticipation of structure a long-term commitment to digital image conversion, Yale is working to develop an entirely new job family of technicians and to hire project staff into this family at the appropriate skill levels needed for nazi the project. Matters of personnel administration can be significant barriers to censorship in america the implementation of imaging projects if not managed pro-actively. Finally, successful project implementation depends upon administrative support and leadership. During the organizational phase of the project, the vendor selection process allowed Yale to involve a large number of staff both from the nazi, library and the computer center, and particularly during the development of the project's requirements, to cultivate their knowledge and expertise. In the setup phase of censorship in america Project Open Book, the nazi policy, wide involvement of staff and social structure faculty continued in nazi the form of special demonstrations and How Pollution Ecosystems Global Climate Essay briefings, consultation on technical processes, and wide ranging discussions on selection criteria and evaluation strategies. The project is nazi now a central component of the library's vision of in america its emerging support for policy electronic research resources and Essay is a continuing focus for fund raising and outreach to the library community. The burgeoning interest in policy the conversion of library materials to developmental digital images is but one part of a larger transformation of library services. Nazi Policy. Relationships among publishers, libraries, and patrons are being fundamentally redefined in the face of information technology, and it is the responsibility of library administrators to samantha samsom manage this transformation. One of the policy, central questions addressed through Project Open Book is: What is the highest possible quality of starbucks microfilm conversion that can be accomplished within the limitations of policy existing technology?

Defining quality in samantha samsom the imaging environment is nazi not a straightforward matter. Negative Deviance. In the absence of computer-assisted image calibration that automatically sets filters and enhancement parameters to achieve maximum data conversion, the standard of acceptable quality in the imaging environment has been the judgment of experienced system operators. Even the effective use of calibration tools developed by the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM), for example, ultimately depends on policy how any particular test target image appears on the screen. Censorship. Conversion from policy microfilm to digital imagery entails establishing procedures that mitigate the inevitable three-way interaction among the the master, characteristics of the original source materials included on policy the microfilm, the technical characteristics of preservation microfilm itself, and samantha samsom the capabilities and limitations of the policy, hardware/software conversion system. The setup phase of Project Open Book demonstrated that achieving quality conversion in How Pollution Affects and the Global Climate example a production-conversion environment, even when quality is nazi rigorously defined, entails some measure of samantha samsom compromise between the capabilities of the nazi, conversion system and in america the demands of efficient production. Nazi. It is Ecosystems Climate essential that project administrators maintain thorough documentation, including logs of nazi policy benchmarking runs and equipment tests, on the nature of the choices made to limit conversion quality in in america the interests of cost-effectiveness. The setup phase of Project Open Book identified the policy, major characteristics of original source materials that, when reformatted on preservation microfilm, complicate the censorship in america, production-conversion process. Nazi. Library materials, be they books, journals, manuscripts, maps, or photographs, present significant challenges for negative deviance digital image conversion. Unlike office documents, library materials vary greatly in size, contrast, color, and condition. Cornell University's CLASS project, as well as other ongoing pilot imaging projects, demonstrate the nazi, capability of speed imaging technology to achieve near-facsimile reproduction of paper-based materials.

Obtaining the highest quality conversion of library materials in nazi a production environment, however, requires that compromises be made in overall quality. Samantha Samsom. The following are among the most significant characteristics of the nazi, original source document that affect conversion from microfilm. Tone and physical condition of paper. Denver. Books with yellowed and/or brittle edges, dog-eared pages, and uneven fore-edges tend to confuse the edge detection software equipped with the scanner. If the policy, threshold level is set low enough to denver compensate for page edges that are not crisply defined, other discrepancies in the film, such as splices between frames, may cause the software to malfunction.

The size, clarity, and contrast of the typeface are significant variables in the scanning process. The presence of illustrations such as line drawings, engravings, and policy half-tones may require special scanner settings which may impact the a Choice?, readability of accompanying text. Nazi. In determining filter settings, a decision must be made about the intellectual significance of the illustrations in terms of the text and adjustments made accordingly. Foldouts such as maps and illustrations that must be reproduced across the censorship, entire 35 millimeter frame will inevitably slow digital conversion as settings must be adjusted to nazi policy accommodate full-frame imaging and then reset to resume the How Pollution Affects and the Climate, conversion of individual pages. Many colors do not reproduce well on policy high-contrast preservation microfilm. If color is the master integral to nazi policy the understanding of the samantha samsom, content, as is the case for maps, binary digital image conversion (black and nazi policy white) most likely will not be appropriate. Responsible. The characteristics of document images reproduced on preservation microfilm have a tremendous impact on the quality of the nazi policy, resulting conversion as well as on the rate at the master speed, which that conversion can take place. Preservation microfilm is, by nature, a high-contrast medium for reproduction. First generation film, used as the master negative and to create second generation copies, is nazi policy panchromatic, extremely fine grain, silver-gelatin type document recording film.

Second-generation film, used for the production of positive use copies and also used by Project Open Book for digital image conversion, is non-reversing (negative) silver-gelatin non-perforated polyester-based duplicating film. Starbucks Responsible. The RLG Preservation Microfilming Handbook specifies separate film stocks for materials with standard black on nazi policy white text and for denver developmental materials containing halftones or continuous tone illustrations. The following are the policy, most significant film characteristics. Resolution is the samantha samsom, ability of the microfilming system (camera, lens, and film) to nazi policy record fine detail. Resolution is measured on microfilm by negative deviance viewing the reproduced test target containing test patterns arranged in groups of horizontal and nazi vertical lines of specific size and spacing.

The RLG handbook, which describes and interprets the relevant ANSI/AIIM standards, specifies that a good quality microfilm system should be able to and anomie register 120 line pairs per nazi policy millimeter on How Pollution Ecosystems Global Essay example duplicate negative film. The findings of the policy, setup phase of Project Open Book reinforce the developmental, need to nazi examine closely the speed, methodology for interpreting resolution when micro-reproduced test targets are converted to digital image. Nazi. AIIM has recommended the use of resolution indicators on the IEEE Std 167A-1987 facsimile test chart for denver calibrating digital image scanners. Density refers to the opacity of the film. On master and nazi policy duplicate negative film the maximum density--or background density--is the samantha samsom, dark part of the image whereas the minimum density--or base plus fog--is the clear part of the film on which there is no image. The actual background density of the negative is in policy part determined by the contrast of the original materials. The RLG handbook specifies that the maximum density of film containing high contrast originals fall within the range of 1.0 to 1.3. Overall, microfilm should not have maximum densities below 0.80.

Project Open Book has validated these density recommendations with the a Choice?, additional proviso that consistent average density readings within a single volume is a far more significant determinant of image conversion quality than any particular average density value within the range of nazi 1.0 to 1.3. How Pollution Affects Climate Example. Reduction ratio is intimately related to policy the quality of conversion because the ratio determines the amount of visual data stored on the microfilm that is the master speed available for digital conversion. Library materials reproduced on microfilm are reduced to a specific ratio that may range from 8:1 to 14:1. Policy. The exact reduction ratio for negative a given volume is nazi a crucial variable that the imaging system needs to reproduce faithfully the socially responsible, size of the original document. Although the RLG handbook permits libraries to nazi film materials either at fixed or variable reduction ratios, variation of starbucks ratios within a volume will cause production delays. Ultimately, the quality of the policy, digital image conversion is determined by the specific capabilities and limitations of the censorship in america, digital conversion hardware and nazi policy software as they interact with the characteristics of the original source materials reproduced on preservation microfilm. Among the a Choice?, most important of nazi policy these capabilities in Is homosexuality the Project Open Book conversion system are the following. Any scanning device has a finite limit on the amount of data that can be captured about any given surface area.

By necessity, this limit determines the top range of image quality. The maximum capacity of the CCD array (charge couple device) of the nazi, Mekel scanner is social 7042 pixels per inch (ppi) at 16 millimeters and 3694 ppi at policy, the full 35 millimeter width. Samantha Samsom. The conversion of microfilm at nazi, 600 dpi is actually a process of adjusting the capacity of the CCD array in relation to How Pollution Affects Ecosystems Essay the reduction ratio of the materials preserved on nazi policy film. Six-hundred dpi resolution, therefore, is starbucks actually a software-controlled mathematical artifact of the scanning process. The Mekel scanner and its associated software add-ons equip the technician with a variety of filters and threshold settings that determine the nature of the data conversion process. Inadequate documentation on obtaining high quality results, however, requires trial and error processing to understand the nazi policy, interaction of the filters and starbucks socially responsible system settings. In its present configuration, the Mekel scanner converts each frame of microfilm with a uniform set of filter settings. The scanner does not have the capability of nazi creating a combined digital image with one set of filters for speed text and another set of filters for nazi policy window containing an samantha samsom illustration on the same physical page.

The lack of a windowing capability means that the policy, technician must make choices in the master the process of conversion about which type of image content (text or illustrations) to emphasize. The ANSI/AIIM standard on monitoring microfilm scanner image quality recognizes the nazi, technical limitations of current conversion technology and censorship identifies three principles of image quality control. The standard, designed expressly to support the conversion of business documents, recommends establishing quality references defining good output from a digital image system, conducting scanner testing before and policy after converting each batch of social and anomie microfilm, and maintaining thorough records of nazi testing and calibration. Social And Anomie. Of these three, the concept of quality reference has proven to nazi be the starbucks responsible, most challenging for the production team during the setup phase precisely because the existing standard presents a circular argument for nazi policy identifying quality conversion. Speed. If the quality of the digitized test target images is of appropriate quality, [emphasis added] . this becomes the policy, `quality standard'. The standard calls for scanning a suite of denver developmental test targets, printing out the results on policy paper and then carefully examining them, without defining a quality benchmark. The standard cautions against samantha samsom, the exclusive use of the policy, screen for developmental examination of policy a test run output.

The setup phase of Project Open Book utilized two discrete approaches to benchmarking as a way of transcending the limitations of the scanning quality standard. To establish the capabilities of the scanning system, the project team produced three test rolls of preservation microfilm, identical in all respects except for the average density readings. Reel 1 was exposed near the bottom end of the negative deviance, acceptable density range for nazi preservation microfilm (.90); reel 2 was exposed near the top of the range (1.4); reel 3 was exposed in the mid-range of the censorship, average density guideline (1.1). A variety of nazi policy standard test targets were filmed at starbucks, the beginning and end of each reel, including AIIM X491 (Test target No. 1), AIIM X492 (Test target No. 2), and the RIT Process Ink Gamut Chart. Nazi Policy. Each reel also contained roughly 90 exposures from books, serials, archival records, and samantha samsom various illustrative materials representing the array of images likely to nazi policy be encountered in Yale's existing collection of socially responsible preservation microfilm.

Following exposure, all three test reels were developed carefully according to the most stringent archival processing standards. Duplicate negatives of policy each master negative reel served as the test rolls. Samantha Samsom. The major advantage to the project in creating test reels was the possibility of controlling for the huge variation in the visual characteristics of original source materials, as well as controlling for nazi subtle variations in the chemical processing of structure archival microfilm over time. In order to nazi establish the range of samantha samsom useful system image capture and enhancement pre-sets, the project team developed a second benchmarking system which will be used selectively in the production conversion phase of the project. In essence, the planned approach seeks to control for policy the capabilities of various display devices (CRT screens and laser printers). The fundamental assumption of this benchmarking process is that visual comparison of hard-copy output from the microfilm imaging system should be made neither against original printed source materials nor against a display screen, but rather against digital images of the starbucks socially, original source materials. Furthermore, the approach assumes that 100 percent benchmarking of all converted materials is not necessary for establishing a viable quality control system. The following is a summary of the image benchmarking process planned but not fully implemented in the setup phase.

Choose a sample of hard-copy originals, along with print negative counterparts. Digitize portions of the original volume at 600 dpi (title page, table of contents, selected illustrations, indexes) using a calibrated Xerox WG-40 flat-bed scanner with as many of the enhancement features invoked as possible and practical, and following the operational guidelines developed by nazi Cornell University. Samantha Samsom. Produce laser prints at 600 dpi on nazi policy the Xerox DocuTech. Negative. Digitize the policy, identical pages from the microfilm print negative version. Produce laser prints at censorship in america, 600 dpi on the Xerox DocuTech. Compare matching prints under an eye-loupe (10X magnification), paying particular attention to letter fill-in or drop-out or fill in, highlights and shadows in nazi policy line drawings, etc. Developmental. Choose one combination of filter settings for the microfilm scanner that achieves most closely the nazi policy, appearance of the digitized original. Note the characteristics of the denver developmental, film source, once maximum quality has been obtained.

Scan a volume with similar basic characteristics without benchmarking from the original. Compare prints of benchmarked volume with unbenchmarked one; adjust settings accordingly; note sources of discrepancies for policy future reference. In America. If the major goal of a conversion system is to policy maximize quality in a production environment, then it is essential to structure and anomie recognize that compromises will be necessary. The next phase of the project will begin to generate systematic information to answer the following questions: What is the nature of these compromises? Are they acceptable to users, to nazi librarians, and to the preservation community? What are the Affects Ecosystems and the Climate Essay, advantages of the nazi, alternatives to the choices made for purposes of samantha samsom high-speed production?

What research and development needs to be undertaken to establish parameters for machine-assisted quality control? Benchmarking from original source materials may be an acceptable solution in a pilot project, but in the real world of nazi policy research, library preservation microfilm may be the ONLY form in which the original source now exists. Samantha Samsom. We anticipate that the experience of policy converting 10,000 volumes from microfilm with only minimal reference to the original hard-copy published version will provide the library community with significant practical information on samantha samsom image conversion and image enhancement. The project also seeks to address the question: How can digital imaging technology provide enhanced intellectual access effectively and nazi efficiently? Intellectual access, in the context of Project Open Book, is socially defined simultaneously in two distinct senses.

First, intellectual access is the suite of traditional practices of bibliographic control that organize books, serials, archives series, and nazi other recorded knowledge in standard ways such as title, author, place and date of publication, and Is homosexuality Essay subject. When sophisticated database management tools are linked to the capabilities of nazi digital imaging systems, intellectual access has a second meaning, namely, the set of tools and the master speed techniques that permits users to grasp and make use of the content structure of the policy, material, often represented through tables of contents, lists of illustrations or tables, and starbucks responsible word indices to the full text of the material. In providing direct and ready access inside a published work transformed from the linear format of microfilm, digital imaging technology holds great promise of effecting the usefulness and useability of nazi policy preserved materials. One challenge for Yale in Project Open Book is to identify efficient ways to use existing database technology and Affects Ecosystems example standards to develop structural indexes for large, complex, and varied published (and sometimes unpublished) source materials. More pointedly, the nazi, project needs to Ecosystems Global Essay reconcile mid-nineteenth century publishing practices with late 20th century technology. In its current single-platform configuration, the image conversion workstation provides for direct linkage to nazi Yale Library's bibliographic database, Orbis, via a high-speed Ethernet connection.

Library patrons will utilize the public access mode of Orbis to search among those portions of Yale's collections described online using the usual searching conventions, such as Boolean logic operators, to samantha samsom locate materials available in image format. The user interface, in policy its ideal configuration, would permit seamless hyper-linkages between the Orbis searching engine and the image server, allowing patrons to and anomie view image and policy index data for a title on a single access workstation without leaving the core program. The master plan for samantha samsom Project Open Book describes the nazi, way bibliographic, image, and index data would display in a distributed computing environment. Currently, viewing of image files is only possible on dedicated access workstations, although the structure and anomie, project is proceeding as if the nazi, overall goal will be met by starbucks socially the end of Phase IV. In the setup phase, the production team established the mechanism for policy informing patrons of the existence of speed image formats and identified the policy, procedures for establishing unique identification numbers for the master image files to provide the nazi, essential links between the responsible, image database and nazi Orbis. Xerox's document management system is only used to log each item's unique identifier as it appears in denver developmental the Orbis system and to log brief author and short title information. During the policy, next phase, reformatting technicians will modify the starbucks socially, bibliographic record for converted titles to nazi indicate that an image version of the book or serial is available for consultation, using a standard phrase and noting the the master, unique identifier of the policy, image file. A Choice? Essay. Access to the content of an nazi policy imaged document is a Choice? Essay provided by way of a separate relational database. Using Xerox's Document Structure Editor software, reformatting technicians apply page numbers, establish hierarchical nesting of images, and label the indexing levels as appropriate.

In a volume scheduled for conversion, for example, the technician might identify the nazi policy, title page and associated prefatory materials, label the table of contents and other finding aids in the book, including back-of-the-book indexes and lists of illustrations, and indicate where each discrete chapter begins. Starbucks Responsible. A patron can then go directly to any of nazi policy these structures. The structural information is contained in an RDO (Raster Document Object) file, which is Xerox's adaption of the proposed international Office Document Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Format. An RDO file contains information about the structure of an image document, as well as a file location pointer for Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay each page image in that document. Each page in the document is represented by nazi policy a single TIFF (Tagged Image Format File) file. A TIFF file contains the digital data from the scanned page, along with a TIFF header which describes the characteristics of the image file, including the Is homosexuality, formula used to compress the nazi, digital data. A TIFF header is comparable in scope and deviance function to the fixed field header in policy a MARC bibliographic record, and is analogous to negative an envelope that addresses and describes the contents in policy a structured way. Responsible. Because the Xerox database system is partially proprietary, however, the nazi policy, structure of a complex image document, such as a book, is displayable to the patron only with the use of Xerox software.

During the social, setup phase, the policy, project team experimented with a number of approaches toward applying the document structure editor to a wide variety of mid-nineteenth and social structure early twentieth century published materials. This was a period during which authors and publishers themselves experimented with the nazi policy, structure of the books they produced. Tables of contents varied widely in their placement and level of Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay detail. Nazi. Similarly, word indexes to deviance the content of a particular work took many forms and served a variety of purposes not commonly seen today. Special lists of illustrations, glossaries of nazi terms, and other internal tools aided the reader in using a volume. The Master Speed. As the policy, next phase of the the master speed, project begins, Yale's production team will seek ways to apply the structural editor consistently, while recognizing the nazi policy, intense inconsistency of the speed, forms and formats of the nazi policy, materials being converted. At the very minimum, the actual page numbers of the volume will be applied and the images for a particular volume will be clustered under the negative deviance, title page, which will display first to the reader when the nazi policy, document is negative retrieved. If resources permit, at nazi policy, least two intermediate levels of indexing will be applied. The first of responsible these will involve identifying and nazi tagging each volume's internal finding aids, including tables of contents, word indexes, and special lists. A second level will cluster pages in deviance logical intellectual groups, such as chapters, sub-parts, articles, or issues, based upon policy, the specific structure of the work. Developmental. Our report on the next phase of the project will provide more detail on nazi policy indexing structures utilized.

The operational core of in america Project Open Book is nazi sustained production-conversion of microfilm frames to digital images. The central workflow question of the setup phase was How might quality image conversion and indexing be obtained in developmental a production environment? The project team isolated and policy investigated a number of Is homosexuality independent factors that have a major impact on the rate of conversion. Among the nazi policy, most important of in america these factors are the technical limitations of the scanning hardware (particularly the mechanics of policy winding and re-winding film on samantha samsom the scanner); incomplete bibliographic records and nazi policy technical targets that hinder the preparation stage; the huge variation in the technical characteristics of censorship in america preservation microfilm; the complex structure of many published materials or the nazi, nearly complete absence of structure (including page numbers) for others; weaknesses in the user interface that complicate quality assurance activities (especially the complexities of the zoom feature and the control of Affects and the Climate example default filter settings); and, slow data transmission speeds on nazi policy the network and within the developmental, integrated software system. During the next phase of the nazi policy, project, we anticipate that the networked, multi-workstation environment will produce an additional set of a Choice? project management issues that will be described in subsequent reports. During the setup phase, the project team outlined in some detail the four stages of the policy, conversion process and estimated the Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay, productivity rates of nazi policy each of these stages. The conversion of structure 35 millimeter microfilm frames to policy digital images in a Choice? Essay some ways mirrors the initial creation of policy preservation microfilm itself.

The Preparation Stage begins with the application of the Ecosystems Global Essay, content selection criteria and ends with the nazi policy, mounting of the film on the master the conversion hardware equipment. The key preparation steps are: producing a print-out of the appropriate bibliographic record for nazi policy the title; marking the censorship, location of the policy, first and final frames of each volume on the reel with removable silver tape; cleaning the socially responsible, film of policy dust; and, inspecting the microfilm on a light-table and noting a range of characteristics on the workform. Among the samantha samsom, most important characteristics of the filmed item that are noted on policy the workform are: reduction ratio, orientation, contrast, print type and size, condition of Affects and the Global Essay example original, and the frequency of illustrations. Five density readings are taken for nazi policy each volume and negative noted on the form, along with the average of these five readings. Additionally, any special instructions for the reformatting technicians are noted on the workform, including obviously missing pages (often indicated by special targets inserted in nazi the film sequence), gaps in the filming, excessive splices, and the actual page number of the last frame of the volume. Finally, a simple mock-up of the social structure, first and last pair of pages for nazi the item is denver sketched on the workform. The silver tape and nazi policy the mock-up are required because the Mekel scanner is the master speed not equipped with a mechanism for viewing film that is mounted on the scanner. Nazi Policy. Once the reel of microfilm has been mounted on the calibrated scanner, the Scanning Stage can begin. The key steps in the scanning process include creating a batch directory for the item with a unique file name, establishing the samantha samsom, scanning cropping parameters based upon a test scan, selecting scanning options by entering the results of the film inspection from the nazi, workform, and beginning scanning in a continuous mode.

At its maximum capture rate of 600 dots-per-inch, the Mekel scanner actually converts one-half of deviance each frame, representing an policy individual page, in a single pass through the length of the film. At the end of the Is homosexuality a Choice?, volume, the nazi, technician rewinds the film to the beginning of the Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay, volume and nazi resets the scanner so that the second half of the the master, frame, again representing a single page, can be scanned. Policy. This technical solution for Global Climate example maximizing the nazi policy, resolution of samantha samsom digital conversion requires that materials on the microfilm be oriented in a two-up cine mode, as opposed to a comic mode. The two-up orientation allows the scanner and associated software to nazi policy separate two pages filmed as a single microfilm frame. Even though the negative deviance, conversion software provides for the scanning of policy individual page images in comic mode, the Mekel scanner can obtain a maximum resolution of only How Pollution Affects and the Climate example 300 dpi. During the scanning stage, the reformatting technician may re-scan an unacceptable image at any time and policy overlay the censorship in america, newly converted image on nazi the old. The major reasons that re-scanning may be necessary include the failure of the edge-detection software, the presence of a particularly complex illustration, a suddenly poor alignment of the original item on the film, or skewing of the original in excess of 10 degrees. Ecosystems And The Essay Example. The scanned batch must be imported into the Xerox Documents on Demand software system from the TurboScan software associated with the policy, microfilm scanner. Starbucks Socially Responsible. The Xerox software converts the batch of discrete image files into a single image document (called a Raster Document Object or RDO) that can be managed as a single object. Once the scanned batch has been successfully imported, the Indexing Stage may begin.

Yale's report on the next phase of Project Open Book will included a more complete description of the indexing process. During the indexing stage, the technician has the best opportunity to undertake image-by-image quality control, including the policy, generation of proof-prints of selected images. Unacceptable images can be re-scanned immediately or flagged for re-scanning at a later stage of the denver, process. The setup phase demonstrated that, given the nazi, technical configuration of the system, the most cost effective quality control takes place at the point of conversion, rather than farther down the Essay example, production line. The final steps in the production-conversion process are those of the Quality Acceptance Stage, in which the quality and policy completeness of the imaged and social and anomie indexed document is confirmed and the data saved to optical disk. The major steps in the stage include proof-reading the accuracy of the policy, structural index information and the pagination of the image document, producing selective benchmark printouts to negative deviance re-check the policy, quality of the image conversion process, re-scanning of highly problematical images, as necessary, transferring image and index data to deviance magneto-optical disk, and the registering of the completed document in the Xerox Document Manager software. During the registration step, the technician enters the key descriptive attributes of the nazi policy, completed image document that will be required for social searching and retrieval by users until seamless linkages are made with the policy, Library's online catalog.

During the a Choice?, setup phase, the project team developed and evaluated two possible workflow models and validated an equipment configuration that supported the team's estimates of the nazi policy, best workflow model. The team also compiled statistics on the rate of the denver, overall conversion process, concentrating especially on nazi the time required to censorship in america convert microfilm frames in policy continuous mode. Is Homosexuality Essay. Based upon the experience of policy converting 100 volumes in a production-conversion mode, we estimate that 60 minutes will be required to complete the conversion of a typical 300-page volume from microfilm to negative deviance digital imagery. Policy. This hour-long process breaks down as follows: 8 minutes for preparation activities, including visual inspection, density readings, workform completion, and developmental preset selection; 25 minutes for digital conversion; 15 minutes for policy content indexing; and 12 minutes for deviance quality assurance. Excluded from these estimates are a variety of document management activities that currently are quite time consuming and, therefore, will most likely be carried out in nazi policy batch mode after hours. These tasks include file transfer from samantha samsom magnetic to optical disk and file backup. The setup phase defined the components of an issue that is critical to the overall success of nazi policy Project Open Book, namely, a selection process grounded in specific selection criteria. The Master. One of the four working hypotheses of the project is policy that scholars will find greater benefits from a cohesive, concentrated, and significant body of digital information. In the abstract, the question What is the virtual library? is far too complex a matter to be addressed meaningfully in a single pilot project at and anomie, a single research library.

A guiding principle of nazi policy Project Open Book, therefore, is that the selection issue should be focused, in operational terms, on an existing corpus of in america preserved materials whose long-term value has already been determined, and nazi then further defined by identifying cohesive subsets of this corpus that can meet present teaching and How Pollution Ecosystems and the Global scholarship needs of the university. Finally, the nazi, field of materials qualified for samantha samsom conversion will be narrowed by applying technical criteria designed to maximize the quality of the converted microfilm image and the productivity of the conversion process. Nazi. Existing Microfilm: Yale will not create preservation microfilm specifically for Project Open Book. The selection process is Affects Ecosystems and the Global Climate Essay simplified for the project, therefore, because Yale will draw on nazi the rich collection of microfilmed monographs and the master serials that it has created over a decade of large-scale brittle book preservation projects funded in part by the National Endowment for nazi policy the Humanities. In general these collections include items from the negative, period 1830 to nazi 1950 that have already had significant curatorial review and been judged worthy of long-term preservation. Is Homosexuality. Among the nazi policy, microfilmed collections that will be tapped for digital conversion are the Is homosexuality Essay, 25,000 volume American History monographs collection, the policy, 22,000 volume European History collection (excluding the United Kingdom), the negative, 3,200 volume French History collection, and the 10,000 volume History of nazi Economics and samantha samsom Political Science collection. This latter collection is part of an ongoing NEH project, and nazi another 10,000 volumes will be filmed in negative the next year. In addition to these large and policy intellectually cohesive collections, Project Open Book has at its disposal some 5,000 microfilmed volumes of negative high-use items that were preserved on demand from the entire corpus of humanities collections at Yale.

Content Usefulness: First and foremost, Project Open Book is a pilot research and development program within the policy, Yale community. Deviance. As such, ongoing evaluation by nazi policy a subset of in america potential users of the image library is nazi policy crucial to the success of the starbucks socially, project. Nazi. The image library created in denver the project must be used relatively frequently in policy order for How Pollution Ecosystems and the Climate Essay a systematic evaluation program to nazi policy be implemented. Content usefulness as a selection criterion, therefore, is defined as those clusters of materials from the overall microfilm pool with known relevance to the ongoing teaching and research program of samantha samsom Yale's humanities scholars. Furthermore, the relevance of the collection must be tied to a commitment from university scholars and policy students to socially responsible participate aggressively in nazi the evaluation program. Selection by the master content usefulness will not involve item-by-item decision making, but instead will be a matter of nazi identifying classification clusters, from the Old Yale and Library of Congress schemes, within large pools of speed preservation microfilm that hold promise of contributing to ongoing teaching and scholarship over nazi policy the next two years.

Technical Characteristics: Given the known technical limitations of the hardware/software configuration, a set of denver basic technical selection criteria must be applied to the microfilm collection, on a title-by-title or reel-by-reel basis, prior to acceptance for conversion. Selection by technical characteristics of the nazi, input source allows for the convergence of starbucks responsible maximum conversion quality at nazi policy, an optimum production rate. The overall goal of the Affects Ecosystems Essay, selection process is to be as inclusive as possible and to nazi policy attempt to starbucks responsible respond to any special technical challenges that arise during the course of nazi policy routine conversion. Any given volume will not be excluded capriciously for technical reasons. Samantha Samsom. Among the basic technical criteria that will be applied to each reel and/or title that has passed through the content filter are: Film Stock: Input source will be 35 millimeter silver halide microfilm. The duplicate negative (2N) should be used for conversion. Conversion from positive microfilm (3P) is slower and policy of slightly lower quality because of image degradation in the copying process. The master negative (1N) should never be used for Is homosexuality Essay digital conversion, given the risk of damage to the preservation copy. Image Density: The average density readings from the technical targets should be within the nazi policy, range specified in the RLG Preservation Microfilming Handbook for normal exposures (1.0 to the master 1.30).

A minimum of two readings should be taken per title from the nazi, technical target, with a preference for five readings from samantha samsom two separate technical targets for policy each title. Additional readings from the Essay, body of the item itself should be obtained as needed to construct a full portrait of the nazi, volume's density. Essay. Orientation: Original materials should be filmed two-up in cine-mode with a limited number of full-frame exposures from any particular volume. Random full-frame exposures (e.g., fold-out maps or illustrations) require interrupting the continuous scanning mode of the equipment, manually adjusting the settings, and nazi policy then re-setting the software to resume continuous mode. Ecosystems And The Global Climate Essay. Reduction Ratio: An accurate measure of the reduction ratio is crucial to the proper conversion of microfilmed materials. The reduction ratio may either be obtained from the nazi, technical targets that precede the in america, filmed item or from the bibliographic record.

In the nazi, absence of the reduction ratio figure noted at the time of filming, the in america, reduction ratio may be calculated by reference to nazi policy the original item. The time to re-calculate the reduction ratio in this manner, however, may add substantially to the cost of converting the item. Condition of Film: Film stock should be relatively clean and structure free of nazi policy scratches, redox blemishing, or major processing water-spots. Additionally, because film splices may result in scanner error, the number of internal splices (as opposed to splices between volumes) should not exceed RLG's recommendation of six for starbucks the entire reel. Additionally, the setup phase has demonstrated that the quality and rate of policy digital image conversion are substantially improved when the structure and anomie, following characteristics are present in nazi the microfilm source: Consistency of average density across the width of the reel, across the length of the title, and from title-to-title throughout the reel.

Image conversion proceeds more rapidly and more reliably the greater the consistency of microfilm image quality across the reel. How Pollution Affects Global Essay. Clearly defined edges in the original source material filmed, as measured by a rapid shift from black to nazi white on the film. The accuracy of page-by-page conversion depends in part on social the implementation of nazi policy edge-detection software. If original materials were severely yellowed (faded or discolored) or if the edges were cracked, chipped, dog-eared, or otherwise not clearly defined, the edge-detection software can be fooled. Deviance. Wide exposures complicate the system setup procedures and, therefore, increase the nazi, time required to convert the volume. Affects Ecosystems. Frame exposures should not be set nearer than three millimeters from the edge of the film. The gutter of a bound volume should be rigorously centered in the film aperture. Avoid creep of the nazi, center line of the material across the social, film, which slows production as scanner settings are readjusted. The alignment of nazi materials should be square to How Pollution Affects Ecosystems Global Climate Essay example the edge of the film. Nazi Policy. Although software can de-skew a digital image tilted up to samantha samsom 10 degrees from square, the policy, process is very time consuming and therefore expensive. Although the absence of one or all of these factors should not necessarily be grounds for exclusion from conversion, it is important to recognize that the cost of working around the limitations implied by the absence of a consistent, high-quality input source (whether microfilm or paper) most likely will either substantially increase the a Choice?, cost of conversion, due to nazi the necessity to developmental devote extra time and effort to nazi policy tweaking individual images, or will substantially lower the overall quality of the converted images.

Given the fundamental principle that the digital library created in How Pollution Affects Ecosystems Global Essay example Project Open Book must have value to policy contemporary users in the Yale Library, we expect the selection of materials for conversion to speed proceed in tandem with the nazi, process of project evaluation. The focus of the starbucks socially, evaluation is on the useability of the nazi, system in enhancing access to preserved materials and the usefulness of the censorship in america, materials themselves for scholarship when converted to image form. Our principal hypotheses is that digital image systems are at least as useful for nazi policy research and at least as useable as their hard copy and microfilm counterparts for developmental researching the same topic. Nazi. The clusters of issues to be investigated and socially responsible systematic information to be gathered include the usefulness for research purposes of image content, document structure indexes, and linkages to the local online catalog, compared to policy traditional access and browsing methods; the usefulness and quality of the censorship, user interface, screen displays, and policy local printing capability, as well as the socially responsible, need for these and additional tools and capabilities; success in nazi retrieving relevant information sources when the structure and overall content of the Is homosexuality, database is largely known; and, the nazi policy, characteristics of the user population, especially its visual grasp of display screen layout, familiarity with content of the image database, and deviance range of experience with online searching or the use of research resources in electronic form. The project team, with the help of the Steering Committee, has begun to policy identify user groups in the Yale community who are willing to test the developmental, usefulness of the materials selected for conversion and the useability of the end product of the conversion process itself, including the document structure editing, and the user interface.

One such user group will consist of a faculty member and students enrolled in nazi policy specific courses involving primary research in the humanities. Material relevant to the class would have been digitized earlier in negative deviance the project and the use of the nazi policy, digital library would be a required assignment for at least half of the class. Samantha Samsom. The second half of the class would be required to use materials on microfilm and/or original bound formats. Class members would provide feedback on the nature and quality of the policy, imaging system and the research papers produced in social structure and anomie the course could be evaluated for their use of policy image-based, as well as traditional library materials. Such modified controlled field experiments promise to provide valid and deviance reliable assessments of both the useability of the nazi, system and the usefulness of the materials in the digital library for scholarly research. Censorship In America. Yale University Library is now prepared to embark on the third phase of policy Project Open Book--the production-conversion of 3,000 volumes of the Is homosexuality Essay, projected 10,000 volume digital library. In this phase Yale will identify the nazi, requirements for effective and economical digital conversion from microfilm images.

Given the negative, optimal scanner settings and the workflow configuration as determined during the setup phase, work in the third phase will validate the production-conversion model developed in the setup phase, attempt to resolve any problems that arise from a three-workstation environment, and seek further to optimize productivity in the process. Nazi. The third phase will also examine the socially responsible, requirements for intellectual access to the digital library through the addition and nazi use of electronic links between the scanned images and the standard apparatus--pages, tables of contents, indices, chapters, and denver developmental so on--by which complex documents are typically organized. This phase will systematically incorporate user access capabilities into the project. Nazi Policy. Yale will add a view/access workstation in the library during this phase and starbucks will also introduce a network accessible document server with an optical disk jukebox. Nazi. The introduction of wider access to the digital library will enable Yale to execute its plans to evaluate user responses to the imaging system during this phase. Samantha Samsom. Yale must be able to understand and demonstrate its ability to policy provide the censorship in america, image document library as a secure and dependable network service. Nazi. During the Ecosystems Global Climate, next phase, Yale will begin to develop such an policy ability.

The growing document library and the enhanced conversion, storage, and access subsystems achieved in the third phase of Project Open Book will create a solid foundation for socially multiple and concurrent networked access to nazi the image library. In the and the Global Climate example, final phase of the project--the networked distribution phase--Yale will continue the policy, high-volume effort begun earlier and developmental provide access to the growing digital library over nazi the campus network. And Anomie. Formal evaluation of user responses will continue. Yale will explore issues of policy network access and in america consider the costs and benefits of using service bureaus for digital conversion and document structure editing. The deliberate phased approach of the nazi policy, project is censorship in america a pivotal component of the overall strategy to achieve the critical objectives of the project. At the completion of Project Open Book in nazi 1996, the Essay, Yale Library, with its vendor and nazi university partners and with the Affects Ecosystems and the Climate example, support of its collaborators at nazi, other institutions, will have thoroughly examined the means, costs, and social and anomie benefits of converting large quantities of policy preserved library materials from microfilm to digital imagery. Acknowledgements: We wish to thank the censorship in america, Commission on policy Preservation and Access for Ecosystems Global Climate example its support of Project Open Book. The support staff of the Xerox Corporation, in nazi particular Rob Martella, were responsive to socially responsible our needs for training, technical assistance, and product upgrades. Similarly, the Amitech Corporation provided ongoing technical support for policy the microfilm scanning hardware and software.

At Yale, we gratefully acknowledge the support of the censorship in america, members of the nazi policy, Project Open Book Steering Committee. Finally, the setup phase was in large part made possible through the willing and enthusiastic work of the Project Team, composed of the negative deviance, authors of policy this report plus Donald J. Waters, Greg Kaisen, and Robert Halloran. Project Open Book Conversion Workstation. The following technical manuals document the operation of the hardware and software components of Yale's digital imaging system. Censorship In America. Operating Instructions and Maintenance Manual for the Mekel M400XL Microfilm Digitizer , Manual #5052, 1989. Nazi. (Mekel Engineering, Inc., Diamond Bar, CA) Amitech Turbo Scan Software , V3.0. Installation and Operation Manual. (Amitech Corporation, Fairfax, VA) IPT Scan Optimizer , V6.0., 1991. Speed. (Image Processing Technologies, Inc., Vienna, VA) Xerox Documents on nazi Demand , V2.0C, 1994. Social Structure And Anomie. XDM/XQM User Guide. (Xerox Corporation, Webster, NY) Donald J. Waters. From Microfilm to Digital Imagery: On the feasibility of a project to study the nazi policy, costs and benefits of converting large quantities of denver developmental preserved library materials from nazi microfilm to digital images , (Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1991). Anne R. Kenney and samantha samsom Lynn K. Personius. Policy. A Testbed for Advancing the role of and the Global Essay example Digital Technologies for Library Preservation and Access: Final Report by policy Cornell University to the Commission on How Pollution Affects Climate example Preservation and Access , (Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1993).

Donald J. Waters and Shari Weaver. The Organizational Phase of Project Open Book (Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and policy Access, 1992). Glossary of Imaging Technology , Technical Report TR2-1992, (Washington, D.C.: Association for Information and Image Management, 1988). Recommended Practice for starbucks socially Quality Control of Image Scanners , ANSI/AIIM Standard MS44-1988, (Washington, D.C.: Association for Information and Image Management, 1988). Nancy E. Elkington, editor, RLG Preservation Microfilming Handbook , (Mountain View, CA: The Research Libraries Group, 1992). Resolution as it Relates to policy Photographic and samantha samsom Electronic Imaging , Technical Report TR26-1993, (Washington, D.C.: Association for nazi policy Information and Is homosexuality a Choice? Image Management, 1993. Nazi. Standard Recommended Practice--Monitoring Image Quality of Roll Microfilm and Microfiche Scanners , ANSI/AIIM Standard MS49-1993, (Washington, D.C.: Association for Information and Image Management, 1993). In America. Practice for Operational Procedures/Inspection and Quality Control of First-generation, Silver Microfilm of nazi Documents , ANSI/AIIM MS23-1991, (Washington, D.C.: Association for Information and a Choice? Essay Image Management, 1991). Patricia J. Policy. Smith, Xerox DocuTech: 'Print Shop' All in One, The Seybold Report on Publishing Systems 22 (22 June 1993): 2-21. Starbucks. Waters, From Microfilm to policy Digital Imagery , pp25-6. Copyright ©2014 Council on Library and deviance Information Resources . All rights reserved.

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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in policy your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the censorship, main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the policy, book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the the master speed, sentence using the name of the policy, author and title of the article (see format below).

Continue writing your summary by censorship in america, writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to nazi, change both the words of the sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below. Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to Essay, read. Make sure you include the name of the author and article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the author said and not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough?

Your summary should be as short and nazi policy concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay, article and the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article “How the policy, Civil War Began, says that the real reason. How the Civil War Began, by denver developmental, historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the nazi, article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the denver developmental, article.

It should answer the question: What is nazi this essay about? (thesis). Example: In How the Civil War Began by a Choice?, John Jones, the nazi, author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to give the reasons and developmental evidence for nazi, that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the structure, writer is trying to policy, make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is ___________ . The author’s main claim is ___________ and social structure his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author?

While you don't have to nazi, use an author tag in every sentence, you need to Is homosexuality a Choice?, be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and nazi policy when you are saying your own ideas. Samantha Samsom! In general, you want to nazi policy, be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to samantha samsom, make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the policy, reader you are finished using that source. Men and Women in Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of Affects Ecosystems and the Global Climate Essay example, the opposite gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to policy, a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo.

The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is the master speed this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. You will want to consider what is effective and policy ineffective. You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to support the author's point and samantha samsom persuade the audience to nazi, agree.

Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and the master Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to nazi, understand. When writing the censorship in america, analysis, you need to policy, think about what kind of social, text it is and what the nazi, author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the samantha samsom, author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of policy, discussion of that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is the master written, and the moment in time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas.

In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the nazi policy, following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the speed, questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the organization of the essay? How does the nazi, author try to interest the reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the support and censorship in america evidence seem adequate?

Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the point the author is trying to make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about policy, this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to relate to structure, the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the author interest the audience?

Does she or he make the reader want to policy, know more? Does the author explain enough about the censorship in america, history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is policy this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in structure and anomie time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the nazi, audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and Affects Ecosystems and the Global fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and also check out Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the policy, text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before.

Use all of your tools of Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay, literary analysis, including looking at policy the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of language. Example: The organization of essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and Is homosexuality a Choice? the tone is shown by ___________ . Policy! The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of denver developmental, analysis. For example, in my sample reading the nazi policy, response about censorship in america, Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the nazi policy, author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format:

The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . Essay! The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the policy, intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to this argument by ___________. I think that the in america, author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is policy less effective because ___________ includes ___________. Social Structure! The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you?

Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and analyze. Nazi Policy! Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and the master specific. It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Policy! Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and censorship in america back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). Nazi! You will agree with part of the author's points and a Choice? Essay disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the nazi, author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to the master, be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it?

Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to the essay? What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in nazi policy the essay is structure new to you? Do you know of any information the nazi policy, article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about speed, this article?

What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of your response is policy related to your personal experience? How much is related to developmental, your own worldview? How is this feeling related to the information you know? How will this information be useful for policy, you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in samantha samsom your essay?

You can use your answers to policy, the questions above to help you formulate your response. Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and samantha samsom because of policy, this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Samantha Samsom! Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is policy ___________.

This essay makes me think ___________. Structure And Anomie! I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. How to Write a Summary of an nazi, Article. by Virginia Kearney 18. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.

Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for samantha samsom, College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States.

Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide. Is it necessary to include the nazi policy, author's examples in samantha samsom an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 7 weeks ago from policy United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to Is homosexuality a Choice?, complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 7 weeks ago. Thank you so much for nazi, making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on samantha samsom, writing summary on policy, different research papers, based on the filed of International Business.

Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. Speed! :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to nazi, put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is Is homosexuality that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. I'm guessing that with the policy, title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the Is homosexuality Essay, reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of nazi policy, reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the reasons to samantha samsom, allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the policy, rules.

We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the Essay, subsections, and i have an actual format to follow? Thank you :)

Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe. The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of other ideas about that claim. Nazi! I don't use the samantha samsom, term analytical argumentative essay in policy my class but I do teach this same idea.

I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Denver! Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and nazi response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to see my article on the master speed, How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays.

Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Policy! Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay, response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is helpful to you Flor.

I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and nazi policy some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. How Pollution Affects And The! Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to policy, have the opportunity to be tutor by denver developmental, you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to nazi, make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to samantha samsom, know how can I show that these three articles are related to nazi, my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and the master speed examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is nazi policy a great source for anything.

You have to love everything about this site. This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. Samantha Samsom! If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the argument.

Then pose a question which is nazi interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas?

Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is social structure and anomie not very well explained in many textbooks and that is nazi what led me to denver developmental, write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of nazi, essays, which is Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for doing good research. This post has been of great help for me and my friends. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of nazi policy, my students who were still having difficulty. Samantha Samsom! I especially liked the chart.

However, please change adjective to nazi, adverbs. Thanks for the information. Very good insight on analysis description. I want to thank you for the master speed, your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States.

Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from nazi policy Singapore! It's for literature :)

Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and samantha samsom I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of nazi, your post writing. Structure And Anomie! It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to write.

Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over nazi policy, the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at college here in the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to be able to and the Climate Essay example, provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school.

This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. Policy! They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. The Master! In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne.

I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from nazi United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too!

Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in University right now and I have to write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to Is homosexuality, make sure to save it and policy look back on it when I have my next paper due!

Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is developmental structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Nazi! Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly.

In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and response.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from the master speed United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to nazi policy, me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to the U.S. to go to How Pollution Affects Ecosystems Global example, college and play American football. Nazi! The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania.

Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Just about to social, go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to policy, refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. I will have to samantha samsom, think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago.

“Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on policy, a job well achieved. How Pollution Ecosystems Global Example! I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about policy, can be put into a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to the master, add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of going to 4th of July celebrations to my links.

Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.

I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. Nazi! This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Censorship In America! Yes--I should add that to the hub. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States.

Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at nazi my Hubviews and Affects Climate Essay very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of other people out nazi policy there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to censorship, organize them. Nazi Policy! I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out developmental how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and policy respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and Is homosexuality a Choice? others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and nazi respective owners.

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The Legislation of Lycurgus and Solon. Solon's republican principles became the inspiration for Plato's dialogue, The Republic, the Rosetta Stone for nazi policy, the concept of the nation-state, based on the principle of the common good, or general welfare, which informs our own U.S. Constitution. A renewed struggle to and anomie defend those republican principles today, against the push for an fascist, imperial USA, is being led by the political movement of Lyndon LaRouche. The essay has been abridged, and subheads have been added. Excerpted from the complete translation, published in Friedrich Schiller, Poet of Freedom , Vol II. To properly appreciate the Lycurgian plan, we must look back to the political situation in Sparta of that time, and come to know the condition in which he found Lacadaemon [Sparta] when he came forth with his new design. Nazi Policy! Two kings, both furnished with the same authority, stood at the head of the state; each jealous of the in america other, each busy to secure himself a following, thus to set limits to the authority of his counterpart on the throne. This jealousy had been passed from the first two kings, Prokles and Eurysthes, and their mutual lineages, down to nazi Lycurgus, so that Sparta was incessantly troubled by factions over this long span of How Pollution Global Climate time. Policy! By bestowing greater freedoms, each king attempted to corrupt the people to incline to him, and these concessions led the people to become insolent and, ultimately, to samantha samsom insurrection.

The state wavered to and fro, between monarchy and democracy, and swung in rapid succession from one extreme to the other. No line was drawn between the rights of the people and the authority of the nazi kings, and wealth flowed into social structure, the hands of a few families. The rich citizens tyrannized the poor, and policy, the desperation of the latter expressed itself in Is homosexuality, revolt. Torn asunder by internal discord, the weak state had inevitably fallen prey to policy hostile neighbors, or fallen completely apart into a number of censorship smaller tyrannies. And that is the condition in which Lycurgus found Sparta: No clear distinction between the authority of the kings and the people, unequal distribution of nazi earthly goods among the structure and anomie citizens, lack of public spirit and nazi policy, concord, and complete political destitution, were the maladies confronting the legislator, of which, therefore, he had to take account in his legislation.

As the day arrived, when Lycurgus wanted to announce his laws, he had thirty of the censorship most prominent citizens, whom he had previously won over to nazi his plan, appear armed in the marketplace, thus to instill fear in anyone who might resist. The Master Speed! King Charilaus, terrified by nazi policy these measures, fled into the Temple of Minerva, because he believed it all directed against speed him. Nazi Policy! But he was dissuaded of this fear, and in the end became so persuaded, that he actively supported Lycurgus's plan himself. The first decrees concerned the government. To prevent the republic from ever again being tossed to the master and fro between royal tyranny and anarchic democracy, Lycurgus established a third power, as a counterweight, between the two; he founded a Senate.

The senators, 28 in number, or 30 together with the two kings, were to nazi policy side with the people, should the kings abuse their authority, and if, on censorship in america the other hand, the power of the people became too great, the policy Senate would protect the kings against the people. An excellent arrangement, whereby Sparta was forever spared the violent domestic turmoil, which had previously so shaken it. It was thus made impossible for either party to tread the other under foot: Against the people and the Senate, the kings could do nothing, and it was impossible for the people to gain the upper hand if the Senate made common cause with the Ecosystems and the Global Climate kings. But there was a third case, which Lycurgus left unconsidered#151;that of the policy Senate itself abusing its power. The Senate, as intermediary, could as easily join with the kings, as with the people, without danger to the public order. A Choice?! But without danger to the public order, the kings could not join with the people against the Senate. The Senate, therefore, soon began to exploit this advantageous situation, and made excessive use of its authority, in which it was the more successful, since the small number of policy senators made it easy for them to reach agreement among themselves. Lycurgus's successors filled this gap, therefore, and introduced the Ephors, who were to rein in the power of the Senate. More dangerous and samantha samsom, bold was the second change Lycurgus instituted: To do away forever with the policy distinction between rich and poor, he distributed the entire land of the the master speed country in equal parts among the citizens. All Laconia was divided into 30,000 fields, the area around the city of policy Sparta itself into denver, 9,000 fields, each sufficiently large, that a family could easily sustain itself. Now Sparta was beautiful to behold, and Lycurgus himself delighted in policy, the sight of it, as he travelled through the Is homosexuality a Choice? country.

All Laconia, he proclaimed, is a farm brotherly divided among its brothers. Lycurgus would gladly have distributed the other earthly goods, as he had the farmland, but there were insuperable obstacles to policy this plan. He thus attempted to the master reach this goal by other means, and what he could not change by decree, he took into his own hands. He began by outlawing all gold and silver coins, introducing iron ones in their stead. He likewise assigned a very low value to the large and heavy pieces of iron, so that a large space were needed to store even a small sum of money, and many horses to carry it away. Lo and behold, to ensure that no one might be tempted to place any great value on this money, and to hoard it, on account of the iron in policy, it, he had the glowing-hot iron, which was used for samantha samsom, the coins, quenched and tempered in vinegar, which made it unfit for any other use. Who would now steal, or allow himself to be corrupted, or even consider hording wealth, for nazi, the meager gains could neither be kept secret nor employed? Not enough, that Lycurgus thereby deprived his fellow citizens of the means of luxury#151;he removed the the master very objects of the same from their sight, the nazi policy which might have excited their desire for luxury.

Sparta's iron coins were of no use to a foreign merchant, and the Spartans had no others to give him. Artists who worked for denver, luxury, now disappeared from Laconia; no foreign ships appeared any longer in its ports; no adventurer sought his fortune there; no merchants came to prey upon vanities and lusts, for they could carry nothing but iron coins away with them, and in all other countries these were despised. Luxury ceased to exist, for there was no one to sustain it. In other fields, too, Lycurgus set to work against luxury. He decreed, that all citizens eat together in a public place, and that they all eat the same prescribed meals. It was not allowed to indulge in nazi policy, delicacies at home, nor to a Choice? eat luxurious foods prepared by one's own cooks. Everyone was required to contribute a certain sum of money, once each month, for nazi, the food at the common meals, and he received his meals from the denver state in return.

Fifteen persons usually ate together at one table, and policy, each guest had to be accepted by his companions to be permitted to eat at the master the common meal. No one was permitted to remain absent without a valid excuse; this part of the decree was upheld so strictly, that Aegis himself, one of the later kings, upon returning from a war gloriously waged, was denied permission by the Ephors, when he asked to eat with his wife alone at home. Among the Spartan meals, the black soup became famous#151;a meal in praise of which it is said, that the Spartans had to be courageous, for dying was hardly a worse fate than eating their black soup. They spiced their meals with merriment and humor, and Lycurgus himself was so great a friend of social humor, that he placed an altar to the god of laughter in policy, his house. Lycurgus gained much for his purpose by the master speed introducing these social meals. All luxurious delicacies at the dinner table ceased, because there was no use for them at policy a public meal. Essay! Gluttony was halted completely; healthy and strong bodies were the result of this moderation and order; and healthy fathers were fit to produce strong progeny for the state. The social meals accustomed the citizens to nazi live with each other, and to look upon themselves as members of the denver developmental same state institution, not to speak of the fact, that such equality in nazi, the manner of life necessarily exerted influence upon the same emotions. . Lycurgus understood quite well, that it was not enough to samantha samsom fashion laws for his fellow citizens, he would also need to fashion citizens for these laws. It was in the souls of his Spartans, that he would have to anchor his constitution for nazi policy, eternity; in these he would have to kill the susceptibility to foreign influences.

The most important part of his legislation, therefore, was the provisions made for education, and with these he closed the circle, within which the Spartan state was intended to revolve. Developmental! Education was an nazi, important work of the state, and the state a lasting work of this education. His concern for children reached as far as their very reproduction. The bodies of virgins were hardened by exercise, to enable them to bear strong and healthy children. They even went naked, in order to withstand all inclement weather conditions. The groom had to kidnap his wife, and was allowed to visit her only at night, and only if he had kidnapped her. How Pollution Ecosystems And The Essay Example! That meant, that for the first years of marriage, the two remained strangers to one another, and their love remained new and vital. . As soon as the nazi child was born, it belonged to the state. It was examined by the eldest; if it were strong and well formed, it was given over to a nurse; if it were weak and malformed, it was thrown into an abyss at the Taygetus mountain. Spartan nurses were famous throughout Greece for the hard education they gave the children, and were even called into samantha samsom, foreign countries.

As soon as a boy had reached his seventh year, he was taken from his nurse, and educated, fed, and cared for in common with other children of his age. He was trained to endure all hardships, and to achieve mastery of his limbs through physical training. Nazi Policy! Once they had reached the age of young men, the oldest among them had hopes of finding friends among the adults, who were bound to them through love. The elders were present at their games, observed their blossoming genius, and encouraged their thirst for glory by praise or criticism. If they wanted to eat themselves full, the children had to steal food, and hard punishment and shame awaited whoever was caught. Lycurgus chose this means to accustom them, from an early age, to deceits and intrigues, qualities he believed as important for the warlike purpose to which he trained them, as bodily strength and developmental, courage. . It was forbidden to young Spartans to adorn themselves, except when they went into battle or some other great danger. Nazi! Then they were allowed to do up their hair, adorn their clothes, and carry decorations on their weapons. Hair, said Lycurgus, made beautiful people more beautiful, and How Pollution Ecosystems Global Climate example, ugly people fearsome. It was certainly a fine trick of the legislator to connect something humorous and festive with matters of danger, to take from the people the policy sense of fear. He went yet further.

In war, he relaxed the strict discipline somewhat, the lifestyle became freer, and offenses were less severely punished. Thus it was, that war alone was a form of Ecosystems Global Climate example recreation to the Spartans, and they took joy in war as if in a festive occasion. As the enemy approached, the Spartan king ordered the Catorian chant sung, soldiers formed in closed ranks, accompanied by nazi policy flutes, and marched joyfully and fearlessly into danger to the sound of the music. Lycurgus's plan also entailed, that attachment to property was supplanted by attachment to the fatherland, and that emotions, undiverted by any private concerns, only lived for the state. Thus, he thought it good and necessary, to and anomie also spare his fellow citizens the business of normal life, and to nazi policy let these affairs be attended to Ecosystems example by foreigners, so that not even concerns of work, nor the joy of domestic matters, would divert their attentions from the affairs of the fatherland.

The farmland and the homes were, therefore, cared for policy, by slaves, who were respected in Sparta as much as cattle. They were called helots, because the first of the Essay Spartans' slaves had been inhabitants of the island of Helos in Laconia, whom the Spartans had subdued in war, and nazi policy, made their prisoners. It was from these helots, that all later Spartan slaves, whom the social Spartans exploited in their wars, took their names. The use the nazi Spartans made of these unfortunates was an abomination. They were looked upon as tools, of which one might make use to accomplish one's own political aims, and humanity in them was derided in outrageous ways. To provide Spartan youth deterrent examples of intemperance in drinking, the helots were forced to denver developmental become drunk, and they were displayed in this condition publicly. They were ordered to sing obscene songs, and to dance ludicrous dances; they were forbidden to dance the dances of the free-born. They were used to even more inhuman ends. The state was intent upon putting the courage of its youth to severe tests, thus preparing them for war through these bloody games. Thus, at certain times, the Senate sent a number of these youth into the country; they were permitted to take nothing but a knife and some food with them on their travels. Policy! They were required to remain hidden in the daytime; but, at Ecosystems Global Climate example night, they took to the streets, and beat to policy death any helots who fell into their hands.

This procedure was called the cryptia, or ambush, but whether Lycurgus was its originator still lies in doubt. At least, it was consistent with his principles. . Since they were relieved of all their work by in america the helots, Spartans spent their lives in indolence; the youth trained in war games and skills, and the adults were the audience and judges of these exercises. It was shameful for an older Spartan man to stay away from the place where the youth were trained. And thus, each Spartan lived with the state, and all deeds became public deeds. The youth matured under the eyes of the nation, and blossomed into old age. Sparta was constantly in the mind's eye of each Spartan, and Sparta had him, too, constantly in its view. He was witness to everything, and everyone was witness to policy his life. The lust for glory became an incessant spur, ceaselessly feeding the national spirit; the idea of fatherland and national interests became intertwined with the innermost life of all of its citizens. . If we cast a fleeting glace at a Choice? Essay Lycurgus's legislation, we are indeed beset with a pleasant amazement. Among all similar institutions of nazi policy antiquity, his legislation is incontestably the most accomplished, excepting Mosaic legislation, which it resembles in many features, and developmental, particularly in the principles upon which it is founded. Lycurgus's legislation is really complete in itself, everything is encompassed by it, every single thing is bound to every other, and everything is policy bound together by each single feature.

Lycurgus could not have chosen better instruments to accomplish the purpose he had in mind, to create a state, isolated from all others, self-sufficient, and the master, capable of nazi policy sustaining itself through its internal metabolism and its own vital power. No legislator had ever given a state this unity, this national interest, this community spirit, which Lycurgus gave his state. And how did Lycurgus achieve this? By knowing how to direct the Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay activity of his citizens in the state, and depriving them of policy all other paths, which might have distracted them from that end. Everything which captivates the human soul and enflames passions, everything except political interests, he banned by law.

Wealth and desires, science and art, had no access to denver the emotions of the Spartans. Comparisons of fortunes, which enkindle in most people the desire for gain, fell to the side, displaced by the equality of common poverty; the desire for property dropped away with the opportunity for displaying and employing it. By virtue of the lack of knowledge in science and art, which clouded all minds in policy, Sparta in the same way, he spared Sparta the intervention, which an samantha samsom, enlightened mind had made in the constitution; just this impoverishment of policy knowledge, combined with raw national pride, characteristic of Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay every Spartan, always stood in the way of the Spartan's intercourse with other Greek people. They were stamped as Spartans from the cradle, and the more they came up against other nations, the nazi policy more they had to How Pollution Global hold firm to their own. Nazi Policy! The fatherland was the first theater presented to the view of a Spartan boy, from the moment when he began to think. He awoke in the womb of the state, and all that surrounded him was nation, state, and fatherland. This was the first impression in social, his mind, and his entire life was a perpetual renewal of this impression. At home, the Spartan found nothing which might fascinate him; the legislator had deprived his eyes of all enticements. Only in the womb of the state did he find employment, amusement, honor, reward; all his desires and passions were directed to nazi policy this central point. The state took possession of a Choice? all the energy, the powers of each of its individual citizens, and it was upon the spirit of community that the community spirit of each individual enkindled itself.

Thus, it is no wonder, that Spartan national virtue ultimately attained a degree of strength, which must seem inconceivable to us. Policy! And thus it was, that there could be no doubts among the citizens concerning this republic, when the choice was posed between self-preservation and saving the fatherland. And so we may understand, how the Spartan king Leonidas, with his 300 heroes, could merit the inscription on his tombstone, the most beautiful of its kind, and the most sublime monument to political virtue. Tell, you travellers, when you are come to Sparta, that we obeyed its laws, and here are fallen. Thus, one must concede, that nothing could be more purposeful, nothing more thought-out, than this state constitution, and that it represents an accomplished work of art of its own kind, and, followed through in its full rigor, one which necessarily rested upon itself alone. How Pollution And The Climate Essay! But were I to end my description here, I had committed a very serious mistake. This most remarkable constitution is contemptible to the highest degree, and nothing more sad could befall humanity, than that all states be founded on this model.

It will not be difficult to convince ourselves of this assertion. In respect of the purpose set for it, Lycurgus's legislation is nazi policy a masterpiece, of statecraft and human-craft. He wanted a powerful state, founded upon itself, and indestructible; political strength and longevity were the aims for which he strove, and he achieved these aims, to the extent possible under the conditions he confronted. But if one compares the aims Lycurgus set himself with the samantha samsom aims of mankind, then profound disapproval must take the place of the admiration, which our first fleeting glance enticed from us. Everything may be sacrificed for the best of the policy state, but not that, which serves the state itself only as an instrument. The state itself is never the purpose, it is important only as the condition under which the purpose of mankind may be fulfilled, and this purpose of mankind is none other than the development of all the powers of people, i.e., progress. Samantha Samsom! If the constitution of a state hinders the nazi policy progress of the mind, it is Is homosexuality contemptible and harmful, however well thought-out it may otherwise be, and however accomplished a work of its kind. Its longevity then serves the more to reproach it than to celebrate its glory#151;it is then merely a prolonged evil; the longer it exists, the more harmful it is.

In general, we can establish a rule for judging political institutions, that they are only policy, good and laudable, to the extent, that they bring all forces inherent in samantha samsom, persons to flourish, to policy the extent, that they promote the progress of culture, or at least not hinder it. This rule applies to samantha samsom religious laws as well as to political ones: both are contemptible if they constrain a power of the human mind, if they impose upon the mind any sort of stagnation. Policy! A law, for example, by which a nation were forced to persist in a certain scheme of How Pollution Affects Essay belief, which at policy a particular time appeared to it most fitting, such a law were an assault against mankind, and laudable intents of whatever kind were then incapable of justifying it. It were immediately directed against the highest Good, against the highest purpose of structure and anomie society. Armed with this standard, we shall not long be in a quandary about how we shall judge Lycurgus's state. One single virtue, displacing all others, was exercised in Sparta: love of nazi fatherland.

It was to this artificial impulse, that the most natural and the most beautiful emotions of mankind were sacrificed. Political merit was sought at the expense of all moral emotions, and the capacity to attain this political merit was the Ecosystems and the Climate Essay only capability inculcated. In Sparta there was no marital love, no mother's love, no child's love, no friendship#151;there were nothing but citizens, and nothing but the virtue of citizens. Spartan mothers were admired, who, in annoyance, shunned their sons returning from battle, mothers who then hurried into the temple to thank the gods for those fallen in battle. One would hardly wish such unnatural strength of mind upon mankind. A tender mother is a far more beautiful phenomenon in the moral world than an heroic, hermaphroditic creature, which spurns natural emotions to fulfill an artificial duty. . Universal human emotions were smothered in Sparta in a way yet more outrageous, and policy, the soul of all duties, respect for the species, was irrevocably lost. A law made it a duty of the a Choice? Spartans to nazi treat their slaves inhumanly, and in these unfortunate victims of butchery, humanity was cursed and abused.

The Spartan Book of Laws itself preached the dangerous principle, that people be considered as means, not as ends#151;the foundations of natural law and social structure, morality were thereby torn asunder, by law. Morality was utterly sacrificed to obtain something, which can only be valuable as a means to this morality. Can anything be more contradictory, and can any contradiction have more grievous consequences than this? Not enough, that Lycurgus founded his state on the ruin of morality; in an entirely different way, too, he worked against the highest purpose of humanity, in that, through his well thought-out system of policy state, he held the minds of the Spartans fast at the level where he had found them, and How Pollution Affects Global, hemmed in all progress for eternity. All industry was banned, all science neglected, all trade with foreign peoples forbidden, everything foreign was excluded. All channels were thereby closed, through which his nation might have obtained more enlightened ideas, for the Spartan state was intended to revolve solely around itself, in perpetual uniformity, in a sad egoism. The business of all its citizens together, was to maintain what they possessed, and to remain as they were, not to obtain anything new, not to rise to a higher level. Unrelenting laws were to stand watch, that no innovation take grip upon the clockwork of the nazi state, that the very progress of time change nothing in the form of the a Choice? laws. Nazi! To make this condition perpetual, it was necessary to hold the mind of the people at the level where they stood when the state was founded.

But we have seen, that progress of mind should be the developmental purpose of the state. Lycurgus's state could persist under but one condition, that the mind of the people stagnate, and he was thus only able to sustain his state by nazi trespassing against the highest and only purpose of the state. Thus, what is cited in praise of Lycurgus, that Sparta would only flourish as long as it followed the letter of its laws, is the worst one might say about social and anomie, it. For the policy very reason, that it was not permitted to relinquish the old form of state which Lycurgus had given it, without exposing itself to its own destruction, that it had to remain what it was, that it had to stand where one single man had cast it, for that reason Sparta was an unhappy state#151;and its legislator could not have given it a sadder gift, than this renowned eternal longevity of a constitution, which so stood in the way of its true greatness and happiness. If we take this together, the false glitter disappears, whereby a single outstanding feature of the Spartan state blinds an inexperienced eye: We see nothing more than a callow, imperfect attempt, the first exercise of the world at a young age, which still lacked experience and brighter insights to recognize the true relationship of the master speed things. As defective as this first attempt turned out, it will, and must, remain something noteworthy for a philosophical investigator of the history of man. It was ever a giant step of the human mind, to policy treat of a subject as a work of art, which up to and anomie now had been left to fortuitous consideration and passion. The first attempt in the most difficult of all arts was necessarily imperfect, but we treasure it still, because it was an attempt in the most important of nazi all arts. Sculptors began to carve the pillars of Hermes before they rose up to the perfected form of an Antinuous, a Vatican Apollo; law-givers will exercise their attempts for yet a long time, until the happy balance of social forces ultimately comes forth to meet them of their own. Stone suffers the work of the chisel patiently, and the strings struck by the musician answer him without resisting his finger.

It is only the legislator who works upon a material which is active and resistant of structure and anomie its own accord#151;human freedom. He can accomplish the ideal only imperfectly, however pure he may have designed it in his mind, but here the policy attempt alone is worthy of all praise, if it is in america undertaken in disinterested benevolence, and purposively accomplished. Solon's legislation in Athens was nearly the complete opposite of Lycurgus's in nazi policy, Sparta#151;and, since the social structure and anomie two republics of Sparta and nazi, Athens play the Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay major roles in Greek history, it is an attractive enterprise to policy compare their two state constitutions, and to weigh their defects and advantages against one another. After the Affects Climate Essay example death of Codrus, the office of king was abolished in Athens, and its power transferred to an authority who bore the name of Archon, who held the office for policy, life. In a span of time of more than 300 years, thirteen such Archons ruled in Athens, but history has preserved to us nothing noteworthy about the new republic over this span of time. But the spirit of democracy, characteristic of the Athenians even in Homer's time, stirred once more at the close of this period.

The lifelong duration of the Archonate was an in america, all too vivid image of the royal authority, and previous Archons had perhaps abused this great and long-lasting power. The Archon's time in office was thus reduced to ten years#151;an important step toward future freeom, since, by policy electing a new ruler every ten years, the people renewed its act of samantha samsom sovereignty; every ten years it took back its bequeathed authority, then to relinquish it anew as it saw fit. That served to keep fresh in memory, what the subjects of hereditary monarchies ultimately forget entirely, that the people are the nazi source of supreme authority, that the prince is but a creature of the in america nation. For 300 years, the Athenian people had tolerated a lifelong Archon, but it became tired of the ten-year Archons in only 70 years. This was quite natural, for nazi, during this time, it had seven times elected an Archon, thus seven times reminded of its sovereignty. The spirit of developmental freedom, therefore, stirred more lively, developed more quickly, in policy, the second period than in the first. . The Archons were elected from the censorship in america most prominent families, and it was only in later times, that persons from the common people came into these offices. The constitution, therefore, was closer to an aristocracy than to a people's government, and so the people themselves ultimately gained little from the changes. The arrangement, that nine Archons were elected anew each year, had, in addition to its good side, preventing the policy abuse of supreme authority, also a very bad side, and this was, that it brought forth factions in the state. Essay! For now there were many citizens in the state, who had exercised supreme authority and relinquished it. . Eyes ultimately fell upon an irreproachable and generally feared citizen to bring this disorder under control, one to whom powers were granted to improve the laws, which up to that time consisted but in nazi policy, defective traditions. Draco (ca.

620 BC) was this feared citizen#151;a man bereft of human sentiments, who believed human nature capable of denver nothing good, who saw all deeds but in the dark mirror of his own cheerless soul, and was utterly lacking in indulgence for the weaknesses of humanity; a bad philosopher, and an even worse judge of nazi policy man, with a cold heart, a narrow mind, and the master, unwavering in his prejudices. Such a man was excellently suited to implement laws, but to policy give laws, a worse choice were hardly possible. Little of Draco's laws has been left to us, but this little describes to us the man, and the spirit of his legislation. All crimes, without distinction, he punished with death, indolence as well as murder, theft of social and anomie charcoal or a sheep, high treason and arson. Policy! When he was asked, why he punished the lesser offenses as severely as the most grievous crimes, he answered: The smallest of and anomie crimes are deserving of death; for the greater crimes, I know of nazi no other punishment than death#151;so I treat both equally.

Draco's laws are the attempt of a novice in the art of governing men. Fear is the only instrument, through which they take effect. Developmental! He only punishes an offense committed, he does not prevent it; he takes no care to close off the sources of offense, and to improve people. To snuff out the nazi life of a man because he has committed an evil act, is samantha samsom as much as to cut down a tree because its fruit is foul. His laws are doubly contemptible, because they have not only the sacred sentiments and policy, rights of man against them, but also because they were not framed for the people to whom they were given. Were any people in the world unlikely to flourish under such laws, the Athenian people certainly were. The slaves of the pharaohs or of the king of kings might eventually have settled with them#151;but how could Athenians bow under such a yoke? . Draco thus fulfilled his mission very badly, and instead of being useful, his laws only How Pollution Ecosystems, caused damage. Nazi Policy! Since they could not be obeyed, and there were as yet no others to put in structure and anomie, their stead, it was as if Athens had no laws at all, and anarchy most sad tore in upon them. The condition of the Athenian people at that time was lamentable in the extreme. One class of people possessed everything, the other, on the other hand, nothing at all; the rich mercilessly repressed and exploited the nazi policy poor. An impenetrable wall grew between them.

Distress forced the poor citizens to flee to structure and anomie the rich for nazi, relief, to the very leeches who had drained them; at their hands, they found but gruesome relief. Samantha Samsom! For the sums they borrowed, they had to pay immense interest, and if they did not pay on time, they were forced to sell even their lands to their creditors. When they had nothing more to nazi give, and yet had to live, they were forced to in america sell their own children as slaves, and nazi policy, finally, when this recourse, too, was exhausted, they took credit, secured on their own persons, and structure and anomie, had to accept being sold by their creditors as slaves. Nazi Policy! There was as yet no law in Attica against this abominable slave-trade, and nothing held the gruesome greed of the rich citizens in check. So horrible were conditions in Athens. Were the state not to be destroyed, this disrupted balance of goods would have to be reestablished by violent means. To this end, three factions had emerged among the people. The one, which the poor citizens particularly joined, demanded a democracy, an equal distribution of farmland, as Lycurgus had introduced in Sparta; the other faction, consisting of the rich citizens, argued for aristocracy.

The third faction wanted to speed see the nazi two forms of state combined, and Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay, opposed the other two factions, so that no one faction won out. There was no hope of settling this strife calmly, as long as no one was found to nazi whom all three parties would submit, and whose mediation over them they would acknowledge. Fortunately, such a man was found, and his services on behalf of the republic, his gentle and reasonable character, and Is homosexuality, the renown of his wisdom, had for a long time drawn the eyes of the nation to him. This man was Solon, of royal lineage as Lycurgus, for he counted Codrus among his forebears. Solon's father had been a very rich man, but had reduced his wealth through charity, and the young Solon had to become a merchant in his younger years. His spirit was enriched by the travels which this kind of life made necessary, and by intercourse with foreign peoples, and his genius developed in policy, acquaintance with the samantha samsom wise men of foreign countries. Very early he devoted himself to the poet's art, and the skill he achieved in it served him well in later life, in cloaking moral truths and political rules in these pleasing robes. His heart was sensitive to joy and love; certain weaknesses in nazi policy, his youth made him the more considerate toward mankind, and lent his laws the character of the master speed gentleness and nazi, tenderness, which so beautifully distinguish them from the laws of Draco and Lycurgus.

He had also been a valiant commander, had captured the island of a Choice? Salamis for the republic, and performed other important deeds of war. At that time, the study of wisdom was not yet separated from nazi its political and military effects, as it now is; the wise man was the samantha samsom best statesman, the most experienced soldier, his wisdom flowed into all business of public life. Nazi Policy! Solon's reputation resounded throughout Greece, and he enjoyed great influence in the general affairs of the Peleponnese. Solon was the man who was equally esteemed by all the parties in Athens. The rich placed great hopes in developmental, him, for he was himself a man of wealth. Nazi Policy! The poor trusted him, because he was a righteous man. The judicious among the Athenians wanted him to be their ruler, because monarchy seemed the best means to suppress the factions; his relatives wished this also, but for denver, selfish reasons, to share the rule with him. Solon rejected this advice: Monarchy, he said, was a beautiful house to live in, but there was no exit from it.

He contented himself with being named Archon and nazi, law-giver, and assumed this office reluctantly, and only out of concern for the welfare of the citizens. The first act, with which he began his work, was the famous edict, called Seisachtheia or the release, whereby all debts were annulled, and it was forbidden at structure the same time, that in the future anyone be permitted to borrow on his own person. Nazi! This edict was naturally a violent assault upon property, but the samantha samsom most urgent need of the nazi policy state made a violent step necessary. It was the censorship in america lesser of two evils, for nazi, the class of people which suffered from it was far smaller than those whom it made happy. By this beneficent edict, he did away at once with the heavy burdens which had pressed down the poor class for centuries; but the rich did not become poor as a consequence, for he left them everything they had, and only took from them the means to be unjust. And Anomie! Nevertheless, from the poor he harvested as little gratitude as from the rich. The poor had expected a fully equal distribution of the land, for which Sparta was the example, and therefore grumbled against him, that he had betrayed their hopes. They forgot, that the law-giver owed justice to policy the rich, as to censorship in america the poor, and policy, that the arrangement of Lycurgus was unworthy of imitation, just for the reason that it was founded upon an injustice, which had been avoidable. The ingratitude of the people forced a modest complaint from the law-giver: Formerly, he said, praise welled at me from all sides; now everyone looks upon me with hostile glances. Affects Ecosystems And The Climate Essay! Soon, however, the salutary effects of his edict began to manifest themselves.

The land, previously worked by slaves, was now free; the policy citizen worked the land as his own property, which he had previously worked for Ecosystems and the Global Essay example, his creditor. Many Athenians, sold into nazi policy, foreign countries, who had already begun to forget their mother tongue, saw their fatherland once again as free men. Confidence was reestablished in the law-giver. He was commissioned with the entire reform of the state, and had unlimited authority to dispose of the property and rights of the Is homosexuality a Choice? citizens. The first use which he made of his powers was to policy abolish all of Draco's laws#151;except those against speed murder and the breach of marriage. Now he undertook the great work of giving the republic a new constitution. All Athenians had to submit to a census of their fortunes, and after the census they were divided into four classes, or guilds. The first was comprised of those who had an annual income of policy 500 measures of censorship in america dry and fluid goods. The second consisted of those who had an income of nazi 300 measures of these goods, and a horse. The third were those who only the master, had half as much, and where two fortunes had to be combined to make up this sum. Nazi Policy! They were therefore called the two-teamed.

In the fourth class were those who owned no land and lived only from their craftwork: craftsmen, wage-earners, and artists. The first three classes could assume public offices; those from the censorship last class were excluded from public office, but had one vote in the national assembly as all the others, and, for that reason alone, had a large share in policy, the government. All major issues were brought before the national assembly, called the Ecclesia, and also decided by this assembly: the election of magistrates, assignments to offices, important affairs in law, financial affairs, war, and peace. Since, furthermore, Solon's laws were afflicted with a certain obscurity, in each case where a judge was in doubt about the denver developmental interpretation of the law, appeal had to nazi be made to the Ecclesia, which made the final decision about how the How Pollution Ecosystems example law was to be understood. The appeal to nazi the people could be made from all tribunals. No one was allowed into the national assembly before the age of thirty years, but as soon as someone had reached the required age, he could not absent himself from the assembly without incurring punishment, for Solon hated and Is homosexuality a Choice?, fought against nothing more than indifference to the commonweal. In this way, the constitution of Athens was transformed into a complete democracy; in the strict sense, the people was sovereign, and it ruled not merely through representatives, but in its own person and by itself.

But soon the disadvantageous consequences of this arrangement became evident. The people had become powerful too soon to wield this privilege with moderation, passion mingled in the public assembly, and the tumult, which such a large number of people excited, did not always permit mature deliberation and policy, wise decision. Is Homosexuality A Choice?! To obviate this defect, Solon created a Senate, into which were taken 100 members from each of the four guilds. This Senate had to deliberate beforehand on the issues, which were to be laid before the Ecclesia. Nothing, which had not previously been taken into consideration by the Senate, was permitted to be taken before the people, but the people alone decided.

Once an issue had been presented to the people by the Senate, then the speakers rose to influence their decision. Nazi Policy! This class of people attained to great importance in Athens, and did as much damage to the republic by the abuse they made of their art, and structure, of the easily swayed minds of the Athenians, as they might have contributed, if, free of private ambitions, they had had the nazi true interests of the state always in mind. The speakers summoned up all the a Choice? Essay contrivances of nazi eloquence to make the side of an issue appear best to the people, which they most favored themselves; and, if a speaker were a master of his art, all hearts were in his hands. The people retained the full freedom to elect or reject, but, by the art employed to present issues to the people, its freedom was controlled. A most excellent arrangement, if the function of the speakers had always remained in pure and social structure and anomie, loyal hands. But soon these speakers became Sophists, who staked their fame on making the bad appear good, and the good, bad. Policy! In the center of Athens, there was a large public square, surrounded by statues of the gods and heroes, called the Prytaneum.

The Senate met on this square, and for that reason the senators were called Prytanes. The Prytanes were required to lead irreproachable lives. No spendthrift, no one who had treated his father irreverently, no one who had become drunk even once, might even conceive of seeking this office. As the population of Athens increased, and instead of the four guilds, which Solon had introduced, ten were established, the speed number of nazi policy Prytanes was increased from denver 400 to 1,000. But of these 1,000 Prytanes, only nazi policy, 500 were active in a given year, and the master, even these 500, never all at policy once. Fifty of them governed for five weeks, such that, in any given week, only ten were in office. Thus, it was entirely impossible to samantha samsom make decisions arbitrarily, for each of the Prytanes had as many witnesses and custodians of his actions as he had fellow officials, and the successor was always able to critize the administration of nazi his predecessor. Every five weeks, four popular assemblies were held, not counting the extraordinary sessions, an arrangement, which made it entirely impossible, that an issue remained long undecided, and the process of business delayed. In addition to the Senate of Prytanes, which he newly created, Solon also reestablished the censorship authority of the Areopagus, which Draco had degraded. He made it the policy supreme keeper and guardian spirit of the laws, and tied the republic to these two courts, as Plutarch says, the Senate and the Areopagus, as to censorship two anchors. The two courts were established to guard over the preservation of the state and its laws.

Ten other tribunals took care of the application of the laws, the execution of justice. There were four courts dealing with murder cases, the palladium, the delphinium, the phreattys, and the helía. . As soon as a death sentence was spoken, and the defendant had not chosen to escape it by voluntarily going into exile, he was handed over to the eleven men; this was the name of the commission, to which each of the ten guilds delegated one man; these ten, together with the executioner, made eleven. These eleven men were the guardians of the prison, and carried out the death sentence. The forms of death conceived for criminals in Athens were of three kinds: either the criminal was thrown into policy, a gorge or into the sea; or he was executed with a sword; or he was given hemlock to drink. Before the death penalty, there came banishment. This punishment is horrible in happy countries; there are states, where it is no misfortune to be banished. That banishment came before the death penalty, and, if it were forever, it was equivalent to death, is a beautiful testimony to the self-conception of the Athenian people. The Athenian who lost his country, was unable to find another Athens anywhere the world over. Banishment also entailed the confiscation of all property, except in social structure and anomie, the case of nazi ostracism.

Citizens who, either on in america account of particular merit or of fortune, had attained to greater influence and reputation than compatible with republican equality, were temporarily banished#151;before they had deserved it. Nazi Policy! To save the state, one was unjust toward individual citizens. The idea behind this custom, is laudable in itself, but the means chosen manifests a childish policy. This form of banishment was called ostracism, because the vote was made on shards of and anomie pottery. Six thousand votes were necessary to impose this punishment upon a citizen. Ostracism, by its nature, necessarily affected the policy meritorious citizen, and samantha samsom, therefore honored him more than it shamed him#151;but it was no less unjust on nazi policy that acccount, and gruesome, for it deprived him, who was most worthy, of what was dearest to in america him, his homeland. A fourth kind of punishment of criminal offenses was the punishment of the pillars. The criminal's guilt was written upon policy a pillar, and this dishonored him and his entire family. Six tribunals existed to Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay decide lesser civil offenses, but they never became important, because those convicted could always appeal to the higher courts and to the Ecclesia. Everyone represented his own case (women, children, and slaves excepted).

A water-clock determined the length of his and his accuser's arguments. Nazi Policy! The most important of these civil offenses had to How Pollution Ecosystems and the Climate Essay example be decided within twenty-four hours. So much for the civil and political institutions of Solon, but the legislator did not limit himself to these alone. Nazi Policy! The advantage the ancient legislators had over more recent ones, is denver that they framed their laws for the people who would be governed by them, that they also took account of the character of social relationships, and never severed the citizen from the human being, as we do. Among us, it is not seldom, that the laws are in direct contradiction to morality. Among the ancients, laws and morality stood in a more beautiful harmony. Nazi! Their body politic, therefore, had a warmth of vitality, which ours lacks; the How Pollution and the Global Climate Essay example state was inscribed in policy, the souls of Is homosexuality Essay its citizens with indestructible strokes. One must, however, be very cautious in praise of antiquity. One may generally say, that the nazi intentions of the ancient legislators were wise and laudable, but that they were in speed, want of means.

The means applied often manifested wrong ideas, and a biased form of conception. Where we remain too far behind, they hastened too far forward. Nazi Policy! If our legislators have been wrong to Affects Ecosystems Global Climate example entirely neglect moral duties and morality, the Greek legislators were wrong, in that they enjoined moral duties with the force of law. The first condition for the moral beauty of deeds is freedom of will, and this freedom is gone, as soon as one wants to enforce moral virtue by punishment under law. The most noble privilege of human nature is to decide for itself, and do what is good for nazi policy, the sake of the censorship good. No civil law may command loyalty toward friends, generosity toward the enemy, gratitude to father and mother, for as soon as it does so, a free moral sentiment becomes a work of fear, a slavish impulse. But, once more we return to our Solon.

One of Solon's laws decrees, that every citizen consider an insult against another person to be directed at himself, and nazi, that he shall not rest until the insult has been avenged. The law is an excellent one, considering Solon's intent. His intent was to imbue the citizen with a warm sympathy for all others, and to accustom all together to censorship look upon each other as members of a cohesive whole. How pleasantly surprised we would be, if we came into nazi, a country, where every passerby, uncalled for, stood to protect us against someone who had insulted us. But much of and anomie our pleasure were lost, were we told at the same time, that our protector had been compelled to act so beautifully.

Another law which Solon enacted, declared anyone without honor, if he remained neutral in an insurrection. This law, too, was based upon an unmistakably good intention. The legislator's concern was to instill in the citizens the most ardent interest in the state. Nazi! To him, indifference toward the denver fatherland was the policy most hateful quality of his citizens. The Master! . These laws, he decreed, should be in force only for 100 years#151;how much further he saw than Lycurgus! He understood, that laws are but servants of education, that nations in policy, their adulthood require a different guide than in their childhood. Lycurgus perpetuated the childhood of the minds of the speed Spartans, thereby to perpetuate his laws among them, but his state disappeared with its laws. Solon, on the other hand, expected his laws to last only 100 years, and many of them are still in force to this day in Roman law books. Time is a just judge of merit. Solon has been accused of having given the people too much authority, and policy, the accusation is not unfounded. By steering too far wide of the master one reef, oligarchy, he ran too close to another, anarchy#151;but yet, only too close, for the Senate of Prytanes and the court of Areopagus were strong reins upon democratic authority.

The evils, which are inseparable from nazi a democracy, tumultuous and impassioned decisions, and the spirit of faction, were obviously unavoidable in Athens#151;but these evils are to be attributed more to the form which he chose, than to the essence of democracy. It was a severe mistake, that he let the people decide in person, rather than through representatives, which could not proceed without tumult and confusion, on censorship account of the large number of people without wealth. Ostracism, for which at least 6,000 votes were required, allows us to nazi glean how stormy such popular assemblies may have been. On the the master other hand, if one considers, how familiar even the most common Athenian was with the affairs of the commonweal, how powerfully patriotism worked in him, how much the legislator had taken care, that the fatherland was the most important thing to every citizen, one will obtain a better idea of the nazi political understanding of the Athenian populace, and How Pollution Affects and the Essay example, also beware of premature conclusions about policy, their common people, judging by our own. All large assemblies always have a certain lawlessness in the consequence#151;but all smaller assemblies have trouble keeping themselves pure of aristocratic despotism. To hit a happy mean between the two, is the most difficult problem, which coming centuries shall have to solve. To me, the spirit remains admirable, with which Solon was inspired in in america, his legislation, the spirit of healthy and genuine statecraft, which never lost sight of the fundamental principles, upon which all states must rest: to give unto oneself the laws which are to be obeyed, and to fulfill the responsibilities of the policy citizen out of insight, and Essay, out of love of the fatherland, not out of slavish fear of punishment, not out of blind and feeble submission to the will of policy a higher authority. Beautiful and How Pollution Affects Ecosystems and the Global example, fitting it was of Solon, that he had respect for human nature, and never sacrificed people to the state, never the end to the means, rather let the state serve the people. His laws were loose bonds, in which the minds of the nazi policy citizens moved freely and easily in all directions, and never perceived, that the bonds were directing them; the laws of Lycurgus were iron chains, in which bold courage chafed itself bloody, which pulled down the mind by their pressing weight. All possible paths were opened by the Athenian legislator to censorship in america the genius and diligence of his citizens; the Spartan legislator walled off all of his citizens' potentials, except one: political service.

Lycurgus decreed indolence by law, Solon punished it severely. In Athens, therefore, all virtues matured, industry and art flourished, the blessings of diligence abounded, all fields of knowledge were cultivated. Where in Sparta does one find a Socrates, a Thucydides, a Sophocles, and Plato? Sparta was capable of producing only nazi policy, rulers and warriors#151;no artists, no poets, no thinkers, no world-citizens. Both Solon and Lycurgus were great men, both were righteous men, but how different were their effects, since they proceeded from principles diametrically opposed. The Athenian legislator is speed surrounded by freedom and joy, diligence and superfluity#151;surrounded by all the arts and virtues, all the graces and muses, who look up to him in gratitude, and call him father and nazi, creator. About Lycurgus, one sees nothing but tyranny and its horrible partner, slavery, which shakes its chains, and flees the cause of its misery. The character of an entire people is the most faithful impression of its laws, and thus also the surest judge of its value, or lack thereof. Limited was the Is homosexuality a Choice? mind of the Spartan, and insensitive his heart. He was proud and haughty toward his fellows, severe toward the vanquished, inhuman toward his slaves, and slavish toward his superiors; in his transactions, he was unscrupulous and faithless, despotic in his decisions, and his greatness, even his virtue, lacked the policy pleasing grace, which alone wins hearts.

The Athenian, quite the contrary, was gentle and tender of behavior, politely intelligent in discussion, kind to inferiors, hospitable and Essay, helpful to foreigners. He loved delicacies and finery, but that did not prevent him from fighting like a lion in battle. Clothed in purple, in nazi policy, scented oils, he brought Xerxes's millions and the raw Spartans, alike, to tremble. He loved the pleasures of the table, and only with difficulty resisted the lures of lust, but gluttony and shameless behavior brought dishonor in Athens. Delicacy and decorum were more practiced by no other people in antiquity than the Athenians; in a war with Philip of Macedon, the Athenians had captured a number of the king's letters, among them also one to his wife: All others were opened, this one was returned unopened. The Athenian was generous in fortune, and steadfast in misfortune; it cost him nothing to dare everything for the fatherland. He treated his slaves humanely, and a mistreated slave was permitted to accuse the tyrant in in america, court. Even animals experienced the generosity of this people: After the construction of the temple of nazi policy Hecatonpedon was completed, it was decreed, that all beasts of burden employed in the construction were to be freed, to feed themselves at no cost for the rest of structure and anomie their lives upon the best meadows.

Later, one of these animals came to work of his own, and ran mechanically around the other animals. Nazi! This sight so touched the Athenians, that they decreed special treatment in the future for this animal at the cost of the state. I owe it to justice, however, not to remain silent about the defects of the Athenians, for history should not be a eulogy. This people, whom we admire for its fine morality, its gentleness, and its wisdom, not seldom sullied itself with the most shameless ingratitude toward its greatest men, and denver, with cruelty toward its vanquished enemy. Corrupted by the flattery of its speakers, haughty in its freedom, and in vanity of so many brilliant advantages, it repressed its allies and neighbors often with unbearable pride, and let itself be guided in public deliberations by frivolous swindlers, who often destroyed the efforts of the wisest statesmen, and tore the state to the abyss of ruin. Every individual Athenian was tractable and impressible; but in public assembly, he was no longer the nazi same person. Thus, Aristophanes describes his countrymen to us as reasonable old men at home, and in america, as fools in the assemblies.

Love of fame and thirst for novelty took hold of them to the point of excess; for fame, the Athenian would often risk all his earthly goods, his life, and not seldom#151;his virtue. Nazi Policy! A crown of olive branches, an inscription of a pillar proclaiming his merit, were to developmental him more a spur to fiery deeds than all the nazi treasures of the great king were to the Persian. As much as the Athenian people exaggerated its ingratitude, it was as excessive, in turn, in its gratitude. To be accompanied home in triumph from the assembly by How Pollution and the Global Climate Essay example such a people, to entertain it only for one day, was a higher pleasure to the Athenian thirst for fame, and a truer pleasure, too, than his most beloved slave can give to a monarch, for it is something quite different indeed to stir an utterly proud and tender people, than to please one single person. The Athenian had to be in incessant movement; ceaselessly, his mind snatched for new impressions, new pleasures.

This addiction to novelty had to be fed each day anew, should it not turn against the state itself. Policy! . The evening of Solon's life was not as cheerful as his life had deserved. To escape the obtrusiveness of the Athenians, who haunted him daily with questions and proposals, as soon as his laws came into effect, he travelled through Asia Minor, to the islands, and to Egypt, where he discussed with the wisest men of his time, and visited the royal court of a Choice? Croesus in nazi policy, Lydia, and the court at Säis in Egypt. The stories told of his meetings with Thales of Miletus and with Croesus, are too well known to repeat here. Upon his return to Athens, he found the state thrown into confusion by three factions, led by two dangerous men, Megacles and Pisistratus; Megacles made himself powerful and feared by censorship his wealth, Pisistratus by nazi his political shrewdness and genius. This Pisistratus, Solon's former favorite and the Julius Caesar of Athens, once appeared before the popular assembly, pale and stretched out on his wagon, covered with blood from a wound he had inflicted upon his own arm. Thus, he said, have my enemies mistreated me on your account.

My life is in perpetual danger, if you do not take measures to protect it. Thereupon his friends proposed, as he had instructed them, that he should receive a bodyguard, who should accompany him whenever he went out in public. Solon surmised the fraudulent intent of structure this proposal, and set himself energetically, but in vain, against it. The proposal was accepted, Pisistratus received a bodyguard, and soon thereafter he was at its head, when the guard seized the citadel of Athens. Now the veil fell from the Athenians' eyes; but too late. Nazi! Terror took hold of Athens; Megacles and his followers escaped from the city, and left it to social the usurper. Solon, who alone had not been deceived, was now the only one who did not lose courage; as much trouble as he had taken to hold his citizens from their rashness when there was still time, as much he now took to revive their sinking courage. When no door opened to him, he went home, placed his weapons in front of his door, and called out: Now I have done what I could for the best of the nazi country. Samantha Samsom! When his friends asked him, what made him so courageous to spite those more powerful, he answered: My old age gives me the courage. He died, and his last glimpses saw his country not free. But Athens had not fallen into the hands of a barbarian.

Pisistratus was a noble person, and honored Solon's laws. Subsequently banished twice by his opponents, and twice again become master of the city, until he finally maintained his rule in calm, by his services on behalf of the city and his brilliant virtues, it was soon forgotten, that he was a usurper. Under him, no one noticed, that Athens was no longer free, so mild and gentle was his government, and policy, it was not he, but Solon's laws, which ruled#151;Pisistratus opened the Golden Age of Athens; under him, the beautiful morning of social structure Greek arts dawned. He died, mourned as a father. His work begun was carried forward by policy his sons, Hipparch and Hippias. Both brothers governed in in america, harmony, and policy, the same love of science inspired both. Simonides and Anacreon flourished under him, and the Academy was founded. Everything hastened toward the magnificent age of Pericles. #151;Translated by George Gregory. The Complete Translation is available in censorship in america, the book, Friedrich Schiller, Poet of Freedom, Vol.

II. More of Schiller's Works. Poems and Ballads : Philosphical and Aesthetical Writings: Theater Considered As A Moral Institution. Kallias, or on the Beautiful.

Toward the Further Elaboration of Some Kantian Ideas. Love, Virtue, Friendship. On Epic and Dramatic Poetry. From Wilhelm Tell: The Ruetli Oath Articles About Schiller#146;s Works: Lyndon LaRouche in Dialogue, 2002. Fidelio Table of Contents from 1992-1996. Fidelio Table of policy Contents from Is homosexuality 1997-2001. The Schiller Institute.

Washington, DC 20041-0244. Thank you for supporting the Schiller Institute. Nazi Policy! Your membership and contributions enable us to publish FIDELIO Magazine, and to speed sponsor concerts, conferences, and other activities which represent critical interventions into the policy making and cultural life of the policy nation and the world. Contributions and memberships are not tax-deductible.

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Essay contest: What has changed your life? Essay contest winners write about nazi policy, how birth and death have affected them. Everyone has had an How Pollution Affects and the Climate, event that has changed his or her life. Mine was the birth of policy my little brother, Matthew. Social! My whole life changed with his birth, but sometimes change can be a good thing, even when it’s not expected. When my parents first told me that they were having a baby and I would have another brother, but this time I’d be an older brother, I was full of emotions. I was happy and nazi policy, sad at the same time.

My whole life was going to change and samantha samsom, I wasn’t sure if I was ready. Back then, I did not know what a positive impact this event would have on my life. When Matthew was born (I picked out nazi policy, his name, by censorship the way) I could not stop smiling. Nazi! There, in the bed, was this little “creature” my parents called their son. Not until I picked him up did I feel the weight of his life on my shoulders, and speed, the weight of the effect I would have on him. I immediately felt I had more responsibility, and nazi policy, I was ready to do anything for my little brother. My whole family took care of him, even the cat, and life was somewhat peaceful during those first few weeks. When my mom went out for the first time in months, I fed him a bottle, and although he spit up most of it and only drank a few drops, it was just as satisfying for me as for Matthew.

I was there when he rolled over for the first time, and I was there when he took his first steps. I saw his first tooth come in, and I will soon see his first tooth fall out. Social Structure And Anomie! I helped feed him his first solid food, which he spit up as well, and I heard him say his first word, “momma.” Even when he started talking more and nazi policy, more, he called me “Donadan,” which was sufficient considering Jonathan is pretty hard to denver, say. At least he was making an effort to talk to policy, me. That was seven years ago, and Matthew and I are closer than ever. My older brother is a senior in high school and getting ready for and the Essay, college, so he does not get to spend much time with us. My parents are constantly busy and when they’re not, they’re sleeping or doing something relaxing. Policy! And something relaxing in my house is anything that doesn’t involve Matthew. So that leaves me to samantha samsom, spend time with my brother, which, although it is often difficult and tiring, is quite gratifying. He may cheat in nazi policy, checkers, but he is only doing that to censorship, win and get respect from policy, his big brother.

When he gets all 4s in Is homosexuality Essay, first grade and says he is doing second-grade spelling words, I am just as happy as my parents. I baby-sit him constantly and nazi, we have fun, even though he is pretty much in charge. It’s a wonderful feeling knowing that my little brother idolizes me. I don’t know any other 7-year-old today who likes Cat Stevens, Marvin Gaye, James Taylor and Stevie Wonder more than the Wiggles. He knows all the words to dozens of Ray Charles songs, and he even has his own blues-y voice. But more than just my music rubs off on Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay Matthew. When I got an nazi policy, electric piano for Hanukkah, so did he. I haven’t had the time to schedule lessons, but Matthew is learning to play every week. Denver Developmental! Of course we still play our “Heart and Soul” duet whenever we can.

Like me, he would rather watch Scrubs and Seinfeld on TV than SpongeBob, although I’m pretty sure he doesn’t understand them at nazi the same level that I do. I can’t help but smile when I walk Matthew to social, school or help him with his computer games. He drives my family crazy, maybe me more than everyone else, but I still love him. Nazi! I teach him things every day and he teaches me things too, most of them about myself. I’ve grown as a person since my brother was born, not just in age, but in responsibility and morality. He comes before everything else in my life and rightly so. He’s probably caused multiple viruses on our computer, but I’m so proud that he knows how to use the computer (better than my parents). Every site I visit on a Choice? Essay the Internet he bookmarks in his folder. Although Matthew can still relate to kids his age, he is probably more mature than most of nazi policy them just for Affects Ecosystems Climate example, having spent so much time with me. Nazi Policy! Although I am in intense classes and busy in my sophomore year, I sometimes feel like a little kid again as I unleash my inner child when I’m with Matthew.

Everything we do rubs off on each other. I didn’t really want a brother at first, but now I wouldn’t have it any other way. Natalie Reed , 13, Wilson MS (Glendale) A lot of the master things have changed and nazi, affected my life. Samantha Samsom! The most life-changing experience was the death of my mother. When I was young, around 5 years old, my sister Alisha died. Alisha was only nazi policy, 11 years old when she died and I don’t remember much about developmental, her, but I’ve been told that she had a cold which got into nazi policy, her lungs and suffocated her. Right now, Alisha would probably be starting college. My mom was so depressed about Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay, Alisha’s death that she committed suicide.

I don’t remember a lot about nazi policy, my mom, just the way she looked, how she stood in Affects and the Climate Essay, front of the mirror putting on makeup, the Rice-A-Roni dinners and the smell of bacon and nazi, coffee in censorship in america, the morning. Policy! I remember once, while we were in line to get food from El Pollo Loco, she was eating MM’s and her tooth fell out. She just looked at it for a second and stuck the tooth back in her mouth! I thought she was crazy! It was so funny, but gross at the same time.

Some people tell me that when you commit suicide, you go to hell. I don’t know if I don’t believe it, or just don’t want to believe it. I miss my mom a lot, and try to picture how my life would have, or could have been, if she were still alive. I sometimes wonder if she was even thinking about me when she killed herself. Did she not care? Did she think that it would be best for me? The worst part of all is the fact that I was still in the house when she slit her wrist, and sometimes I get so angry at her for that. I was only How Pollution Climate Essay example, 7 years old and nazi policy, clearly she wasn’t thinking about me or my future.

When I get married, she won’t be there for my wedding. My kids will never have a grandmother from my side of the family. I will never have a mom to How Pollution Ecosystems and the Climate Essay, go shopping for nazi, bras with, and denver, I will never have a normal life. I will always be haunted by nazi policy the memory of what she did. Whenever someone describes slitting their wrist or anything about veins and in america, arteries or anything that has to do with the details of it all, I get squirmy and chills go down my spine, and sometimes there is a tingle in my wrist. It irritates me until I calm down or forget about it, and I fear that the feeling will never go away. I don’t understand; I can watch bloody shows where people are being cut open and blood is everywhere, like House and Animal Cops, but I can’t stand people talking about nazi, veins.

It gets spooky, and I wish that she would have thought twice before she did anything. My life will never be the social same, and I will never have a mother. Michelle Stevenson , 16, John R. Wooden HS (Reseda) I know exactly what can change a person’s life in an instant. What, you may ask? When I was 12 years old, my father was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. At this age I wasn’t very aware of what cancer was or what it could do to policy, a person. I remember my dad couldn’t eat certain foods and he always had pain in his stomach. I remember my father would always help me with my schoolwork and was my best friend. He taught me everything, from Is homosexuality a Choice?, how to use a computer to how to fish.

He was the best blessing God gave me. Policy! No one could ask for a better father. He always went out and anomie, with my sisters and me to go salsa dancing. Policy! As a family we would have the best times in the world. Denver! When he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, my two sisters and I formed a salsa group called Triple Threat. That year we performed in the fourth annual Salsa Congress. Unfortunately, during the month of April my father failed his chemotherapy and was admitted to the hospital.

I remember going to the hospital every day after school. He was so weak. On May 17, 2003, God decided to take my father to heaven. I was too young to understand what had happened. Nazi Policy! Of course I was devastated, crying every day. Denver! My mother forced me to nazi policy, go to school the next day.

She said my father had always wanted me to censorship in america, do well in school. At that age it didn’t hit me as much as it does today. I miss him so much. I always wonder what it would have been like to have him here with me during my teen years. There’s not one day when I don’t think about him. I still cry at nazi times. In America! It’s so hard to lose a person that close. Nazi Policy! I was the most tomboyish of How Pollution Affects and the Global Essay example my three sisters, so that’s most of the reason I was closest to nazi policy, my father. Nothing can take away that pain. The other day my mother and developmental, I were talking.

She, a widow at nazi policy 42 years old, said she would try hiding her feelings and grieving from me because she didn’t want to show me her pain. She said she would cry every day after dropping me off at in america school. She would try her hardest not to cry in front of nazi me and it showed me how strong she is. Then when we were talking it hit me I don’t have a father. After three and a half years, that just hit me. I will never have my dad to walk me down the aisle.

I will never have that father figure, and I lost my best friend who really understood me when I was growing up. It hurts me so. Although I may not have all those things, I try every day to realize how beautiful life is. Censorship! Ever since his death, my family has gotten closer. We realize that we have each other, and nazi, that’s what matters most. We have learned that family comes first before anything. In that way it helped. I have also been really independent. Essay! I work, I do well in nazi policy, school, I pay for my own phone bill and soon will be able to afford my own car, and I dance. I also try every day to appreciate that I have a beautiful family and a loving boyfriend.

So in my opinion a death, no matter who it is, can change lives. My father was my hero. I thank God every day that he was in my life. Cyndhl Imaysay , Paramount HS. We do not get a chance to choose our family, we just end up with whomever God has chosen for us. How Pollution Affects Climate Essay Example! When I was young, everything seemed to be OK. But as I got older, I began to notice that my father was getting more and more verbally abusive. Policy! Not just to my brother and me, but to my mom as well. When I first noticed the the master verbal abuse, I thought that maybe someone had done something or said something to nazi policy, make my dad upset. My dad would yell at us and call us names, and then he would calm down and act as if nothing had happened.

But as the years went on, he started yelling and screaming obscenities at the drop of a hat. We were very careful about in america, what we said and policy, did around him, afraid that we might tip him off. I felt as if I was always stepping on eggshells. I eventually got tired of the yelling and name-calling and started to talk back to the master, my dad. I was raised not to talk back to nazi, my elders, but when you’ve had enough, you’ve just had enough. One afternoon I was watching the Oprah Winfrey Show and they were doing an a Choice? Essay, episode on domestic violence. I paid close attention to nazi, what they were talking about. Ninety percent of what they said described how my dad was acting. Developmental! I knew that my dad was verbally abusive, but I didn’t know that his actions fell under the category of domestic violence. I used to policy, be a very fun-loving child. I had a lot of friends and made new friends quickly.

My friends would hang out at my house and I would hang out at their houses. As soon as my dad started to act the way he did, I was embarrassed to invite any of my friends over because I was afraid that he would yell for Is homosexuality a Choice? Essay, no reason. I was a normal child, but as the abuse went on I noticed that my attitude started to policy, change and I was always fatigued and in america, hungry. I eventually went to see my doctor about nazi, my symptoms and he told me that I had borderline depression. Samantha Samsom! He said that it wasn’t bad enough for medications, but he scheduled sessions with a social worker for me. I would go into the sessions calm and collected, but as soon as the social worker asked me how I was doing, I would cry. I had so much pent-up anger toward my father that I couldn’t say anything. All I could do was cry.

My mom, brother and nazi policy, I left my dad back in June. Social Structure And Anomie! We are now living with my grandmother and nazi policy, my two older siblings. We’re not totally healed from the domestic violence, but life is so much better now. Samantha Samsom! Everything seems to be getting back to normal. Nazi! I keep telling myself to social, live one day at a time and not focus on what has already changed, but for nazi policy, the changes yet to come. Yajaira Hernandez , Wilson MS. It wasn’t even worth it, the delicious food I missed out on. Pasta, meat, pizza and samantha samsom, even ice cream. All because I wanted to be perfect.

I saw models on policy TV who had perfect bodies. Some models looked as skinny as a stick and healthy. Censorship! I wanted to be like them, with the perfect waist and nazi policy, body. So I started to starve myself. The Master! I wasn’t fat, but not perfect. I ate a little at breakfast (sometimes not at all), rarely at lunch and nazi policy, a little at dinner. I drank water and orange juice all the time. I became very impatient when I saw that not eating wasn’t helping me become thinner.

So I went to How Pollution Affects Ecosystems Climate, the bathroom and threw up. I was desperate. Every time I finished eating, my stomach ached. Nazi Policy! I felt it full so I emptied it in the bathroom. By sixth grade I weighed 70 pounds. I was pretty skinny, but not satisfied. It came to developmental, a point where I was vomiting, not on purpose, and headaches were killing me. My stomach hurt and I could barely move myself around. My friends were worried about nazi policy, me. The Master! They were worried I would end up in a hospital. They forced me to nazi, eat many times.

I ignored them and told them to leave me alone. My parents were too busy to see that I had a problem because we were going through a money crisis. But there was one person who noticed my eating disorder. My babysitter took me to the doctor one time. I was there to get shots but she took the time to talk to the doctor. The doctor was concerned about speed, my weight.

She showed me pictures of girls who suffered from anorexia and bulimia. It was gross seeing how skinny they looked. She explained that this can cause stomach cancer and even lead to policy, death. Because of throwing up, there’ll come a point when the body will not want any food. Samantha Samsom! The body does not get all the nutrients it needs and slows down; eventually, it stops working. Some of the pictures showed girls in bed with a tube stuck to policy, them. The girls in the photos were so thin; you could see all their rib bones and censorship, backbones. She said you soon get thin hair and are always cold. I started to cry because I didn’t want to end up that way. I wanted to live a long and nazi policy, healthy life.

After that day, I changed the way I acted. I was a new girl. I was in treatment and denver developmental, followed guidelines that the doctor recommended. Today I look like a normal teenager. I’m a happy girl who blends in with the other girls. Nazi Policy! I’m still not fully recovered but I visit my doctor regularly.

I still wish I had that perfect body that a model has. However, I am glad I changed my decision. Like most teenagers, I got a part-time job to earn some extra cash, but ended up learning a valuable lesson instead. I started working at a retail department store four months ago. My first day on the job was nerve-wracking because everything was hands-on training. After what felt like an social structure, incredibly long day of work, I realized that I had only worked for four hours at $6.75 an nazi, hour! I continued going to work feeling cheated for all the Is homosexuality Essay back-breaking work I was assigned to nazi policy, complete for minimum wage. Working in retail has changed my life for the better. It has made me realize that I can’t do that for the rest of my life. I refuse to. I would much rather do something that involves me using my brain because when I stand there folding clothes, I feel brain dead.

I want something better for myself and working there has helped me realize that. Since I’ve started working, my grades have improved dramatically. Denver Developmental! Last semester, I am proud to say I earned a 4.0 GPA. I have dedicated much of nazi policy my time to applying for structure and anomie, financial aid and scholarships. Knowing that I don’t want to end up folding sweaters has motivated me to focus more on the future. Nazi Policy! Before, I had no idea what I was doing. I didn’t know if I was even going to college. My horrible job was a real eye-opener for denver developmental, me. I want something better for myself.

About a year and nazi policy, a half ago I got into a car crash that was horrible. That moment changed my view about censorship, life entirely. All my life I had been waiting until I could get my driver’s license and my first car. When I finally got my license and my dad brought the car to the house, I was thrilled. From that day on, the most important thing in policy, my life was that car. Every day I would get home and see what else I could do to samantha samsom, make it better. My car was my pride and nazi, joy and when I had fixed it up into “perfect” condition, I finally began to drive it. Every time I got into denver, my car I felt invincible, as if nothing could stop me. Nazi Policy! But one day I was shown that just like every other person, I could be broken. One night after finishing up my errands, I was in the car with my friends. I felt unstoppable while driving.

But soon enough I was shown that I wasn’t. While driving down a main street I felt the car start to denver, skid and nazi policy, it kept skidding to the point where I lost control. At this point time wasn’t moving slow enough and when I realized what was happening, the only thing I could do was swerve the car so the in america impact would be on my side, and so I did. After the crash I don’t remember much, but I do remember the policy pain I was in, not only physical but also the thought that the lives of How Pollution Ecosystems and the Climate example others were in nazi, my hands for a few seconds and I may have dropped them. One thing led to another and I was in the emergency room getting stitched up.

I didn’t sleep much that night but when I finally did wake up, I was in a lot of pain. But I also began to see things in a different light. The memory of that day will never leave me, but what I learned from the master speed, that experience I’m glad for. Not only did I learn that I need to policy, have a lot more appreciation for things, I also learned that material things should never be the most important things in your life. Samantha Samsom! All that time that I spent working on the car could have been spent getting to know my family better. I have also become a much humbler person who realizes that I can bleed just like everyone else, and I am grateful for that. Sometimes you need to go through rough moments to nazi, come out with the best. Having a car was what I waited for all my life, but now just being alive is a blessing for me. In America! Every day of nazi one’s life should be made the best because you don’t know how many you have left. Letter to an inanimate object.

When one of our teen staff writers told us that she heard someone reading a letter to an inanimate object on National Public Radio, we thought that would make a great essay question. We all have objects that we have such strong feelings for that they become almost like a person with his or her own personality. Social And Anomie! Here is nazi policy your chance to tell them how you feel. Write a letter to an inanimate object to tell it what it means to structure and anomie, you. Nazi! It could be an social structure and anomie, object that makes you happy, like a favorite stuffed animal, or on nazi policy object that drives you crazy, like a locker that always jams.

It could be an everyday object or something special that you cherish, like a necklace that a parent gave you. Share how it has affected your life in a positive or negative way.