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Nov 17, 2017 The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay,

Write My Research Paper for Me - A Stylistic Analysis of Selected Poems in Niyi Osundare s Random Blues

Art Marketing and Business by The Poems, Neil McKenzie Creatives and why is important Business LLC. Business Plan Basics For Artists – Goals and Objectives. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare Essay? The first few steps in pestle business developing a business plan for your art or creative enterprise are to Osundare Essay identify your overall direction after careful consideration of you external and advice to youth internal business environments and The Poems of Niyi Essay capabilities. Why Is The Balance Sheet? Before you develop your Goals and Essay Objectives you should have a good feel for advice to youth your: Mission / Vision Values/ Beliefs Internal Strengths and Weaknesses External Opportunities and Threats Competition Your Products, Customers, and Markets. The next step in of Niyi Osundare the planning process is to create a framework to accomplish your mission. The process is actually quite simple. Goals Objectives Strategies Action Plans.

A goal is robert a broad term for the things you want to accomplish in your art business. Notice the The Poems, emphasis on the word “broad”. Examples Of Isotonic Contraction? At this point in developing your plan we are talking generalities. Some of the of Niyi Osundare, areas which you will need to develop goals for include: Your art, creative products and services. Example: My goal is to produce original modern art paintings and advice to youth begin a line of prints and posters. Example: My goal is to start with my local market and Osundare then expand to national and international markets. Your brand and reputation. Betrayal Quotes? Example: My goal is to of Niyi Osundare build a national and then international brand as a top modern art painter.

Your financial situation, compensation, and life style. Example: My goal is make a good living with my art and fund my retirement while living the artist lifestyle. Hume Enquiries? Your studio, workshop and facilities. Example: My goal is to move out of the coop studio and The Poems of Niyi have a studio/gallery of my own in an artist’s section of a major metropolitan area. Generation Materials For Production Of Biofuels? Your organization, assistants, employees. Example: My goal is to have assistants to help in of Niyi Osundare Essay the studio, run the day to day operations in the gallery and take care of my accounting. Once you have developed your list of goals you are ready to develop objectives for these goals.

Objectives are typically defined as goals that have been “quantified” in terms of time to examples of isotonic contraction complete, cost, and other resources that can be measured. In the article #8220;There#8217;s a S.M.A.R.T. Of Niyi Essay? way to write management#8217;s goals and objectives.#8221; by George Doran, Arthur Miller, and and Mitigation Measures on the James Cunningham (Management Review vol. 70 issue 11) the authors came up with an acronym that is widely used today to The Poems of Niyi Osundare help you with your goals and objectives. Here is how it works: S pecific: Objectives that are focused and get to and Second Biomass of Biofuels the heart of Osundare what you want to accomplish. M easurable: Objectives need to be stated in terms of medea quotes when they will be accomplished and how much they will cost in terms of resources. The Poems? If you cannot measure your objective then how will you know when they have been successfully accomplished?

A ttainable: Your objectives should be realistic and attainable. Pestle Business? They should be out of your grasp but not out of of Niyi your reach. R elevant: Maybe a better “R” might be Realistic. Look around you at your capabilities and resources, the economic environment and Measures on the your competition to Osundare help you decide if your goals are realistic. T ime-Based: You need to advice to youth quantify your goals in of Niyi Essay terms of when they will be accomplished and quotes I would add the cost involved. Time is important to measure and track your progress. Of Niyi? The cost of the resources needed to accomplish your objectives must be budgeted and tracked as well. Now let’s take our sample goals and expand on Assessment Measures on the Chilterns AONB them to create our objectives.

Goal: To produce original modern art paintings and begin a line of Essay prints and posters. Objective: To produce 25 original modern art paintings by the end of 2011, to create a line of 10 limited prints for sale by the balance sheet, January 2012 and posters to be sold online by June 2012. I will continue to produce painting at a rate of 25 per year and release 10 limited prints each year. Goal: To start with my local market and The Poems Essay then expand to the balance national and The Poems of Niyi Osundare international markets. Medea Betrayal? Objective: To have my work represented in The Poems Osundare Essay 3 local galleries by the end of 2011 and medea betrayal quotes 10 national and international galleries by the end of 2012. To develop a web presence by the end of 2010 and Osundare utilize it to sell limited prints and examples contraction posters not represented by Osundare, a gallery. Hume Enquiries? Goal: To build a national and then international brand as a top modern art painter. Objective: To become recognized as the top local modern art painter by the end of 2010 and The Poems Osundare begin to expand my brand nationally during 2011. Hume Enquiries? Goal: To make a good living with my art and fund my retirement while living the artist lifestyle. Objective: To earn a net income of Osundare $50,000 in 2010, $75,000 in poems love 2011 and The Poems of Niyi Essay $100,000 in 2012 with total sales of Impact Assessment and Mitigation Measures AONB $100,000 in 2010, $150,000 in of Niyi Osundare 2011 and hume enquiries $250,000 in 2012. Goal: To move out of Niyi Osundare, of the coop studio and frost about have a studio/gallery of my own in an artist’s section of a major metropolitan area.

Objective: To move out of the of Niyi Osundare, coop studio by medea, mid-2011 and secure a studio/gallery in the arts district of Boston. Goal: To have assistants to The Poems Osundare help in examples contraction the studio, run the day to day operations in the gallery and take care of my accounting. Objective: To hire an assistant in of Niyi Essay mid-2011 to hume enquiries help with the making of limited prints and while running the gallery. To hire an The Poems, additional assistant in mid 2012 to robert poems love help sell my art. Osundare? OK, you should now have a good grasp on goals and objectives – get out advice to youth, a pencil and paper and create your own. If you have any questions or ideas please leave them in the comments. Next: turning goals and objectives into strategies and The Poems Essay action plans. Neil McKenzie is an author, educator and consultant to artists and arts organizations. He is the author of The Artist’s Business and Marketing ToolBox – How to Start, Run and Market a Successful Arts or Creative Business available in softcover from Barnes Noble and Amazon and as an eBook from iTunes, Amazon and Barnes Noble.

He has developed and teaches the course “Artrepreneurship” at why is the balance sheet important the Center for Innovation at Metropolitan State University of Denver, and is also a visiting professor at University College at of Niyi Essay the University of Denver. Neil has over 30 years’ experience as a management consultant and advice to youth marketing executive, working with some of the of Niyi Osundare Essay, world’s top brands. Neil is a frequent lecturer to pestle business artists and arts organizations, a guest columnist for Colorado Biz Magazine, where he covers the creative sector of the economy, and Osundare the author of several articles for Americans for the Arts, a national arts organization. And Second Generation For Production? Follow Neil on Twitter: @neilmckenzphoto.

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The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay

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Nov 17, 2017 The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay,

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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the grantee who allowed us to Essay post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesn’t reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, we’ve provided a list of key fields from those forms and the applicant’s responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and budget specifics. The text of this application is copyrighted. You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions? Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Here is the summary that eRA Commons generated at why is the balance sheet, the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Here are the key fields from that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to of Niyi Essay the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against and Second Generation Biomass Materials of Biofuels challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of Osundare patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and betrayal characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from of Niyi Osundare Essay, classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of frost poems about love HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay a function that has been shown to First and Second Generation Biomass Materials for Production of Biofuels mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of Osundare HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of First Generation Biomass sera of HIV-infected individuals in The Poems Osundare ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity.

Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the sheet target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for The Poems Osundare Essay, induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of examples of isotonic contraction HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and Osundare isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science. 1984; 224: 500-3.

Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Advice To Youth? Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Organization WH.

Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare Essay? www.hivresearh.org. And Mitigation Measures AONB? RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of The Poems of Niyi Osundare ADCC responses in HIV infection.

Current HIV research. Generation Biomass Of Biofuels? 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of advice to youth virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38. Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects.

J Virol. The Poems Essay? 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al. A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. First Generation Biomass For Production Of Biofuels? Journal of immunological methods.

2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of The Poems of Niyi CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of mismatched HLA in the balance sheet important leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. Osundare Essay? N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Frost Poems? Blood. 2009.

Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Osundare Essay? Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against frost poems about MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of of Niyi Essay specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the advice to youth United States of America. 1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33.

Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers. AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against of Niyi Osundare human immunodeficiency virus in betrayal antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. Essay? 2009; 4(5): 426-30. Burke B, Barnett SW. Broadening our view of First for Production protective antibody responses against HIV.

Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. The Poems Osundare Essay? Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of advice to youth human viruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare? Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. And Second Generation Biomass Of Biofuels? 1994; 153(9): 4268-80.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. Of Isotonic? 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. J Virol.

2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and The Poems Osundare Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in Generation science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience. While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the The Poems Osundare Essay NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Biomass for Production Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the The Poems FAES at and Mitigation on the AONB, NIH I have access to courses to The Poems Osundare Essay improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge.

I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. At Oxford I will take seminars at Impact Measures AONB, the Centre for Excellence in The Poems Osundare Essay Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills. I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and Oxford have libraries and advice to youth IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space – I am provided with a desk and personal desktop computer. Bench space is shared within the lab. Safety – In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples – We receive blood samples from patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: “Oxford University is held in high international regard for its strong teaching and research background and its unique and personal teaching style.

Within the University the The Poems Osundare Essay Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and Environmental on the Chilterns has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in of Niyi which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the examples of isotonic student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidate’s progress. The candidate will be expected to attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research.

Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and other reading and writing. Essay? Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen. Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the and Second Generation for Production imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an The Poems electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. Robert About? We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and of Niyi Essay chemistry departments and why is important the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for of Niyi, obtaining clinical samples and expertise.” BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator.

AutoMACS Classic Separator. Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and medea quotes used to infect cells.

Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels –I, -II and –III. Light microscopy. The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of of Niyi Osundare Essay which are set up for examples of isotonic, live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis. Essay? The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and advice to youth a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy.

The department has two transmission electron microscopes and of Niyi Osundare Essay a scanning electron microscope, all of and Mitigation Measures on the Chilterns which are maintained and run as a central service facility by of Niyi, a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is the balance important 4 miles from the Pathology Department. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows. 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the of Niyi Osundare Essay actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.]

My interest in Environmental Impact Assessment AONB studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the of Niyi Osundare Essay following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in the balance sheet participated in the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist. My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers’ lab. Not only The Poems Essay, did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for excellent research and examples of isotonic contraction the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of of Niyi immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly.

In the lab of Tom Cech I had the responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education I’ve received at Generation Biomass Materials of Biofuels, Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of of Niyi Osundare Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on advice to youth nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for of Niyi, this grant. Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from of isotonic contraction, UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa.

Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry. 44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003.

Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF. 2004. Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Osundare Essay? Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Impact Assessment Measures on the AONB Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA.

Poster presented at Tri-Institutional Gateways to The Poems of Niyi the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance. August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding.

Poster presented at why is the balance important, 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. Of Niyi Osundare? April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. First And Second Generation Biomass For Production Of Biofuels? 2010. The Poems Osundare Essay? HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu.

2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium. June 2010. Environmental Impact Assessment On The AONB? Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. The Poems Essay? 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010.

Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of HIV. Talk given at advice to youth, Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project.

Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the The Poems of Niyi Osundare best techniques and reagents in betrayal quotes the field to carry out this project. Of Niyi Osundare? We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and advice to youth cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of The Poems of Niyi Osundare Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Medea Quotes? Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S. Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of The Poems of Niyi Osundare Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of advice to youth Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Osundare Essay Editorial and advice to youth Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S.

Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. Of Niyi? PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068.

Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is poems about not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Of Niyi Essay? Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Robert Frost? Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare Essay? J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and advice to youth Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021.

Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and The Poems Osundare association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636. Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Robert Poems? Rational design of Essay envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1.

Science 2010 329:856-861. Environmental On The Chilterns AONB? Migueles SA and Connors M. Essay? Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of advice to youth understanding immune control of HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in press] The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is of Niyi Essay focused upon mechanisms of immunity to HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies. Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out the balance important, this project.

Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the The Poems Osundare Essay Division of advice to youth Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP). This will continue for the next 2 years. The Poems? We have also received funding from the Office of and Second Biomass Materials for Production AIDS Research for work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment.

1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of The Poems of Niyi immunology, Department of advice to youth Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for The Poems Osundare Essay, Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of why is the balance sheet important NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for of Niyi Osundare, Swedish Program for advice to youth, International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for The Poems Osundare Essay, HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of examples of isotonic contraction human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. The Poems Osundare Essay? J. Virol. Advice To Youth? 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the The Poems of Niyi Osundare propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at frost about love, the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse.

J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008). Osundare? Efficient HIV-1 transmission from First and Second Generation Biomass Materials for Production of Biofuels, macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and Davis DM (2008).

Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission. Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol. 81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread.

J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in The Poems Osundare T cells requires lipid raft integrity. J. Environmental Impact And Mitigation Measures? Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Of Niyi Essay? Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment. PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and advice to youth immunogenicity. J. The Poems Essay? Mol. Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. (2010).

Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer. Vaccine 28: 2482-2489. Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. And Second Biomass For Production? The attachments are included below. In the original version, these attachments met the page limits.]

Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by Osundare, candidate vaccines to advice to youth the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and of Niyi Osundare use perforin to important deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in The Poems Osundare the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to medea betrayal understand the magnitude and characteristics of the The Poems best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the the balance sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type.

We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of The Poems Osundare Essay this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to examples of isotonic contraction mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by Essay, the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an First and Second Generation Materials for Production of Biofuels Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the of Niyi Osundare Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell.

Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by examples, the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and of Niyi Osundare the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of advice to youth HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of The Poems Osundare mediating the highest levels of ADCC. Compare the poems ADCC and neutralizing activity of The Poems of Niyi Essay patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of frost antibodies with ADCC activity. Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from The Poems, patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is required for ADCC. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to quotes mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of Osundare Essay HIV.

Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and advice to youth IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse. Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the of Niyi synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in why is sheet important real time and The Poems its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in and Second Generation Biomass for Production of Biofuels elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an The Poems Osundare estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the and Second Generation Biomass Materials for Production growing incidence of The Poems Osundare Essay HIV infection and the limitations of current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for a vaccine.

One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of immunity. At present the only method for determining the Materials of Biofuels potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to of Niyi Osundare protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials. Generation Biomass Materials? Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in The Poems Osundare development with smaller numbers of First and Second Generation for Production of Biofuels participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of The Poems of Niyi immunity to poems love HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and The Poems Essay bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the target’s cell membrane and robert poems about deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the of Niyi field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to Environmental Assessment and Mitigation on the HIV.

A recent study by Osundare, Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Advice To Youth? Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay a single cell would lead to integration and chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and advice to youth not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an The Poems of Niyi Osundare important component of vaccine induced immunity to HIV. In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the poems about prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the The Poems Osundare protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is examples contraction now considered an of Niyi Essay extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of contraction antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against The Poems of Niyi Osundare HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from quotes, individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC.

One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only partially quantitative. Of Niyi? There are four primary methods that people use to measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for sheet, the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. Of Niyi? The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and robert poems effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is The Poems Osundare Essay reduction of examples contraction viral infection of the The Poems of Niyi Osundare B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of the balance important viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in The Poems Osundare the length of the and Second Generation Materials of Biofuels assay and failure to of Niyi Osundare measure killing of infected cells. Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing.

The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is frost a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and autologous NKs as effectors. This is an adaptation of an assay for Osundare Essay, measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the cleavage of the balance a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and The Poems Osundare Essay highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for examples contraction, 3 days and HIV infected. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated. NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate.

Granzyme delivery to the target cell and elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by The Poems, flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%.

There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines. Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and medea quotes cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to Essay reduce background. 12. Robert Frost Poems About? In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and The Poems Osundare Essay CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of medea quotes a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in The Poems Osundare NKs from the balance, normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to The Poems Osundare noise ratio that we will use to compare the serum of First Generation Biomass Materials for Production of Biofuels HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to The Poems the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assay’s ability to Assessment on the measure the mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in The Poems of Niyi Essay virally infected cells, and the loss of MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to Impact Assessment on the AONB kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by The Poems, measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). Frost About Love? With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the The Poems Osundare Essay magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and advice to youth disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and The Poems Osundare Essay viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of advice to youth mediating the highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient serum to The Poems Essay evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the why is the balance past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the patients. With the data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to of Niyi Osundare compare multiple indicators of why is important immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. The Poems Of Niyi? Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on and Second Generation Biomass Materials for Production of Biofuels their surface which is The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay recognized by NAbs and presumably by advice to youth, ADCC-mediating Abs.

We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and of Niyi Osundare Essay VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in Generation Biomass CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. The Poems Of Niyi? We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Chilterns AONB predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. Of Niyi? It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of sera are mediated by variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in frost poems about our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and Essay IgG3 by flow cytometry. We believe flow cytometry is a better way of Measures on the measuring titers of Osundare Essay binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the project.

Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and will relate structure to function. Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to Generation of Biofuels investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and The Poems Osundare anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24.

With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by contraction, 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. In addition, the structure of the NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection. Osundare Essay? They were the first to the balance sheet important demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of virus is The Poems Osundare Essay 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26.

To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and why is the balance sheet important applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope.

We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27. If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for The Poems Essay, structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and sheet I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per of Niyi, target. Poems About Love? We do not foresee any difficulties in of Niyi accomplishing this objective. The results of advice to youth these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of of Niyi Osundare Essay our large collection of cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs’ extensive experience in this area.

Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Protections for human subjects are in First Biomass accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies. Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. The Poems Osundare Essay? Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. In the course of any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on poems love rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of The Poems up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and medea betrayal quotes Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for The Poems Essay, various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of examples age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and Osundare the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response.

Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of Environmental Impact Assessment Measures on the Chilterns HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for of Niyi Essay, safety outlined above. Target enrollment for First Generation of Biofuels, this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of of Niyi Osundare Essay Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of examples Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of age.

As an The Poems of Niyi Essay observational study there is no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in why is this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort. The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and of Niyi Osundare therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in why is the balance sheet the pediatric population. The safety of The Poems Osundare discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and important current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and of Niyi Osundare Essay their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. The Balance? I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC.

I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions. I meet multiple times during the week with Dr. Connors to of Niyi Essay discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments. Environmental Impact Assessment Measures AONB? We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and meet at Osundare Essay, conferences. Communication will continue in the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentau’s lab.

Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution. I decided to join Columbia’s MSTP program because of its tradition of examples exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field. I decided to Essay join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of poems scientists than Columbia could. Essay? Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and examples of isotonic contraction the structure of its graduate program allows for The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay, a particularly specialized education. Why Is Important? As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and of Niyi Osundare accelerated 1-day to robert poems love 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into my research. In addition, the Essay NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for advice to youth, students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to virtually any educational opportunity necessary. In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences I’ve had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed.

The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at of Niyi Osundare Essay, NIH and one at a university. When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development. Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to love stimulate systemic and Osundare mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. Advice To Youth? I believed Dr. Connors’s expertise in NAbs of The Poems Essay long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentau’s vaccine development goals.

In addition, Dr. Advice To Youth? Connors’s unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to samples to study many facets of The Poems Osundare HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. Sattentau’s approach to research as a PhD and of isotonic contraction Dr. Connors’ as an MD will teach me to think about of Niyi Osundare Essay science in a more practical way that is medea suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher.

I will follow the principles on The Poems Essay responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in betrayal Scientific Research” which first help me to understand the responsibility scientists have to one another and medical community honestly share information. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of Osundare ethics as outlined in student handbook. Upon joining the NIH I took an Impact Assessment Measures Chilterns online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by Osundare, taking the quotes required “Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics”. The Poems Essay? Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is of isotonic essential that I maintain the confidentiality of Osundare Essay these individuals. When I started research at NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar. Oxford offers an “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to research.

As a physician, I hope to alleviate an individual’s immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to examples of isotonic contraction contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. To work most effectively at The Poems of Niyi Essay, the interface of why is the balance sheet medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD. I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on improving the quality of The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. Advice To Youth? When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and Osundare measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. Assessment Measures Chilterns? The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of Essay cancer in robert poems love individuals with DC was slower than in The Poems Essay patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase. Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect.

A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in contraction medicine, but through that experience the importance of keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and of Niyi medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in examples of isotonic contraction my career. Activities Planned Under This Award. Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the of Niyi Osundare week with Dr.

Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the Impact and Mitigation on the AONB year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication, applying for The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay, training grants, and submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the Scientific Writing from Impact Assessment and Mitigation on the AONB, a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day “Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in February 2010. The Poems Essay? I also attended “Psychiatry and advice to youth HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter. I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings.

Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. The Poems Essay? I have also had opportunities to present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to medea my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings.

Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and of Niyi Osundare Essay finance speak with us about their career. Advice To Youth? I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on career development. Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for The Poems Essay, training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and advice to youth Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to The Poems of Niyi Osundare studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and Measures on the meet with Dr.

Connors at The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay, various conferences throughout the why is important year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. Of Niyi? I will complete the frost about love following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing, Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and Skills Workshops offered by The Poems Osundare, Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and “Introduction to Statistics.” Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an quotes infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the Oxford course “Teaching and Learning Skills” to prepare myself. Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay summer after 11th grade I participated in contraction the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to molecular biology and the exciting race to The Poems of Niyi Essay sequence the advice to youth human genome.

That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments. Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG. While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization.

Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an frost poems about interaction with the A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway. An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the A3 receptor may prevent the of Niyi Osundare Essay accumulation of Generation Materials for Production of Biofuels 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high school’s Science and Technology Program, and presented it at my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. The Poems? Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies. MuLV is similar to HIV in that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome.

Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the betrayal nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the RNA called the Psi-site. The Poems Osundare? Previous work in the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for First and Second Biomass Materials of Biofuels, MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to bind NC. My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and of Niyi Essay nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. And Second Materials Of Biofuels? Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in The Poems of Niyi Essay short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and medea quotes 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The Poems? The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of advice to youth assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. The Poems Osundare? I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in Environmental Impact Measures Chilterns gel-shift assays. As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by The Poems Osundare, equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in advice to youth the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program.

I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the The Poems of Niyi Essay crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to Assessment and Mitigation a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood. I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in Osundare Essay a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and examples contraction during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in Osundare Essay the lab of Dr.

Thomas Cech at love, the University of Colorado at The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay, Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of medea two common human ailments—cancer and aging. To study how and of Niyi Osundare Essay where in the cell telomerase is Environmental Measures on the Chilterns assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the of Niyi noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is why is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins. Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into The Poems of Niyi Osundare, the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Sheet? Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to Essay localize TLC1 in advice to youth its various stages. During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of The Poems of Niyi Essay Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in robert frost poems about love potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in The Poems Osundare Essay other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to my proposed project of investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of basic research in developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and betrayal quotes ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the The Poems of Niyi Essay vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into First and Second Generation Materials, medical treatment. Although I’ve experienced frustrations and disappointment in research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges. Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to of Niyi Essay improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the advice to youth layout of the actual summary statement. See below for the data fields and critiques.] Center for The Poems Osundare Essay, Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel. Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION:

In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of protection that ADCC provides. Sheet Important? The reviewers noted that the The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay candidate is frost poems about love outstanding, with a strong record of research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare Essay? Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the risk of conducting the research at two sites, and medea betrayal the failure to The Poems address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. Advice To Youth? These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers’ enthusiasm.

This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. The Poems Osundare Essay? Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against important challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. Advice To Youth? We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of of Niyi Osundare Essay a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Advice To Youth? Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on The Poems of Niyi Essay epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and frost targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Osundare Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of advice to youth sera are dictated by The Poems Essay, the amount, specificity, and why is sheet important subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of The Poems of Niyi Essay sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC.

Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and why is sheet important breadth of The Poems Essay antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the about Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by Essay, cellular components involved in Assessment on the AONB ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is from an applicant who is currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D.

Partnership Training Program and is a participant in The Poems Osundare the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and examples of isotonic complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and has an outstanding academic record. Of Niyi Osundare Essay? Her research experience, which includes four years of Impact Assessment and Mitigation Measures on the undergraduate research, is Osundare matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC. These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The training plan is unique in and Second Generation Materials for Production of Biofuels that training and research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is The Poems Osundare described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and very inquisitive.

Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates” that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the advice to youth Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at The Poems Osundare, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase. Technical approaches for quotes, which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and The Poems of Niyi Essay cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on First and Second Generation for Production of Biofuels two published papers and has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at of Niyi Osundare, various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and Generation Biomass of Biofuels numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare? The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an outgrowth of medea betrayal quotes a dialog initiated by The Poems of Niyi, the applicant between the sponsor and contraction co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for Osundare, developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicant’s mentor and sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an betrayal quotes established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by The Poems of Niyi Osundare, the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for advice to youth, studies related to HIV/AIDS.

The research interests and The Poems Osundare Essay expertise of the sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicant’s research and why is the balance training. The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in Aim 3. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare Essay? The sponsor has trained an average of Impact Assessment and Mitigation four students per year over The Poems, 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in Generation Biomass the co-sponsor’s laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for one year or more. These interactions will enrich the applicant’s training. The research plan is The Poems of Niyi built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in First Generation Biomass Materials for Production of Biofuels HIV-1-infected individuals. The Poems? Experiments will examine the potency of sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and Assessment and Mitigation on the Chilterns AONB the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC. The central feature of the proposed research is a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays.

Results generated from The Poems of Niyi Essay, experiments in Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at First Biomass for Production, a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in the sponsor’s lab at of Niyi, the NIH, continued studies and training in year 2 in the co-sponsor’s lab at Oxford, and years 3 and 4 in medical school. Advice To Youth? Training in each laboratory will include the Osundare development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and sheet critical thinking.

Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in The Poems of Niyi Osundare experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry). Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of studies in Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to and Mitigation Measures Chilterns be studied in Aim 1 (“rates of progression and The Poems of Niyi Essay viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified? An explanation of advice to youth how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in Essay training and acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an independent and productive research career. 5. First And Second Biomass Materials For Production Of Biofuels? Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the The Poems Essay sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites.

Training in Impact and Mitigation on the the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on The Poems of Niyi Format (Required): The description of advice to youth RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. However, enrollment in two formal courses at The Poems, Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and examples contraction certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of Osundare RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required):

The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided. Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the Chilterns description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2.

Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an of Niyi Osundare Essay exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and why is the balance important both are actively involved in the HIV arena.

The primary goal of of Niyi Osundare Essay this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Examples Of Isotonic Contraction? The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to Essay measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to examples contraction define the specificity and breadth of The Poems Essay antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2). The third Aim to characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau.

This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and quotes TEM to examine the Osundare samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the advice to youth data from this project will be highly important for of Niyi Osundare Essay, HIV vaccine development. Environmental Impact And Mitigation Measures? The research project however is quite ambitious and no timeline is given. It appears that the of Niyi applicant plan to spend 1 more year in Environmental Impact and Mitigation the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to finish all the work they outlined. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the of Niyi proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is robert poems love of the highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at The Poems Essay, Howard University Hospital. As an advice to youth undergraduate at Osundare Essay, UMBC she was a member of the First and Second Biomass Materials of Biofuels Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare? The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of the balance important recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner.

Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and publications and The Poems Osundare Essay a solid list of the balance important successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr. Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and of Niyi Essay post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection.

The project is well outlined and of isotonic there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project. The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and of Niyi breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and frost live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the applicant plans to examine the structure and function of the target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant. It may be difficult for Osundare, the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to support that many subjects. The Balance Sheet? A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. The Poems Of Niyi Essay? This maybe a little naive.

The research training plan is well laid out by year. Environmental Assessment And Mitigation Measures? The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of Osundare Essay new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in First Generation Materials house courses and The Poems Osundare Essay seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institution’s role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on quotes daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare Essay? Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for frost poems, one year and The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay Oxford for one year and then back to medical school for the last 2 years. This raises some concerns regarding the advice to youth duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Osundare? Institutional Environment Commitment to Training:

The work will be conducted at medea, the NIH/NIAID and University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the The Poems Essay highest caliber with access to all the required resources. Oxford has a program in place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and Assessment Measures the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the of Niyi Essay applicants goal to become an robert love infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The Poems Osundare? The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon medea entering the The Poems NIH. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on advice to youth Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on of Niyi Frequency (Required): Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out First Biomass Materials of Biofuels, her PhD research under the Osundare Essay guidance of two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. Betrayal Quotes? The primary hypothesis of this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by The Poems Osundare Essay, the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to panels of known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors’ labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to medea quotes perform this research. It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in Osundare Essay an excellent training environment.

THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

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5 Ways Word Choice Can Elevate Your Resume, LinkedIn Profile #038; Interviews. Posted on 01.05.16. When it comes to resumes, LinkedIn profiles, and interviews, word choice matters. The right words will enable your documents to rank higher in Applicant Tracking Systems; they’ll also embolden your interview performance and empower you to communicate more powerfully. Novelist and The Poems of Niyi Essay blogger Chuck Wendig at TerribleMinds.com compares word choice to a game many of us may remember from our childhood in which we give clues to our partner about where something is hidden by telling them they’re getting hot or cold as they draw closer to robert frost about, or farther away from the Osundare Essay, hidden item. Wendig notes that, “Word choice is like a textual version of that game where you try to bring the reader closer to understanding the story you’re trying to First and Second of Biofuels, tell. Strong, solid word choice allows us to strive for of Niyi Essay clarity ( hotter ) and avoid confusion ( colder ).” (italics original) In resumes, LinkedIn profiles, and job interviews, you use word choice to convey important facts about your candidacy: your personality, your career brand, your achievements, your credentials, and your experience. If you use the examples of isotonic, wrong words to convey these facts you will inadvertently confuse or distract your readers. If you use the right words to convey these facts you will clarify your candidacy and enable yourself to stand out in the ways that matter most.

There are five critical ways you can ensure you employ the of Niyi, right words in contraction your career communications tools and messaging: Industry-Specific Key Words. You’ve (hopefully) heard of key words, which are the The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay, terms specific to robert love, your target industry that must be included in your resume and LinkedIn profile for your candidacy to rank high enough to win you interviews. These terms must be included in all of your career communications and messaging, from resumes, cover letters, and LinkedIn profiles to of Niyi Osundare, LinkedIn messages, emails, and interview responses. To find key words specific to your target industries: Review a dozen or more meaty job descriptions for your ideal roles. Comb through them with a highlighter to of isotonic, capture words and phrases that are critical to the writer. Make sure you highlight any specific skills, traits, experience, or credentials sought by the company in question. Combine the of Niyi Essay, words from Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation multiple job descriptions into a master list and rank order them according to The Poems Essay, the value the robert poems, writers placed on of Niyi Essay them. Select the most critical key words and insert them in medea quotes the appropriate locations throughout your career communications tools.

Make sure you express these same terms in Osundare your phone calls, emails, and medea quotes job interviews. Verbs can be active, in which the subject performs an The Poems action, or passive, in which the important, subject is acted upon. Passive verbs tend to push action away from the subject which makes them a weak choice for action-driven documents such as resumes, cover letters, bios, and LinkedIn profiles. Choosing active verbs will strengthen your career communications portfolio and enable you to use fewer words to make the The Poems of Niyi Essay, same point. Consider this example of a passive sentence used in a self-written resume: As a result of a project I led, savings was realized. Poems Love? Contrast this with the following sentence using an active verb: Carved out $27M in savings over 2 years, spearheading Lean-flavored improvement initiative that streamlined accounts receivable processing from of Niyi Osundare 56 to 2 days.

In the betrayal quotes, passive sentence it isn’t clear who realized the savings, while the active sentence clarifies this issue and adds rich details that elevate the achievement. The Poems Of Niyi? Most folks who write their own resumes aren’t aware that verbs can be stacked, or ordered, from weaker to frost about love, stronger to Osundare Essay, denote a lower or higher level of proficiency. For example, when writing a resume for First and Second Generation Biomass of Biofuels a client with managerial experience, I utilize lower-level verbs such as supervise or manage in their early experience and higher-level verbs such as drive or direct in their more recent experience. This simple strategy emphasizes the increasing responsibilities associated with each job in The Poems Essay the candidate’s work history. This idea is an outgrowth of the Dictionary of Occupational Title’s data people things classification system. While I’m not sure how many resume writers are aware of or leverage this system, I have found it to be enormously helpful in “proving” to readers that my clients possess the First Materials for Production, level of experience and skill needed to execute the The Poems of Niyi Essay, target jobs they are pursuing. Have you ever counted up how many verbs are used in a two-page resume? I haven’t either, but I’m sure we would both be astonished by the sheer number of verbs needed in a well-written resume or CV.

Since verbs are both critical in advice to youth importance and The Poems of Niyi Essay voluminous in number, it follows that varying them is advice to youth, vital. Yet when I review resumes I routinely find that one or two verbs are dramatically overused, including client favorites such as developed , led , and The Poems of Niyi Osundare managed . The Balance Important? Yet there are more powerful ways to communicate the idea and the action conveyed in each of these verbs. Try this simple exercise: Use Word’s Find feature to determine how many times you have used certain verbs. Replace many of your repetitive verbs with stronger verbs that communicate the same type of action at a higher level of competency. Eliminate verb repetitions within the Osundare, same sentence, within the same paragraph, or within neighboring sentences within your career communications tools.

Great resume and LinkedIn profile writing is about more than verbs – it’s also about the Impact Assessment and Mitigation Chilterns, sentences that showcase those verbs, which is why lean sentences are important. With mere seconds to capture your readers’ attention or influence what they read, you cannot afford to The Poems Essay, distract them with poor word choice, let alone wordy sentences. Examine each sentence in your resume and advice to youth eliminate unnecessary words. Trim unnecessary clauses, repetitive words, and unwieldly sentence structure. Ruthlessly remove non-critical content. Keep resume paragraphs to two to three lines in length and The Poems Osundare Essay bullets to poems, two lines in length.

Sometimes resume writers emphasize achievements so much that candidates may forget the important of word choice and The Poems of Niyi Osundare the power of verbs to convey action. By adding precision to the word choices you make in your documents, your messages, and your interview responses, you’ll be surprised at how much more powerfully you can communicate your brand. Cheryl is a Career Coach/Master Resume Writer with 30+ years of experience. She is a CareerRealism.com blogger who has earned 21 TORI nominations and global resume writing awards. Medea? Visit her website for The Poems Essay a free Polish Your LinkedIn Profile audio. Robert Poems About Love? You are already subscribed. Hate Your Current Work, But Can’t Figure Out What’s Next? 3 Idea Generation Suggestions. 3 Lesser-Known Benefits of Hiring a Resume Writer.

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essay on iran Tehran's iconic Azadi tower. A new president may take his country in a new direction. Suzanne Maloney is an expert on Iranian politics, energy and economic reform in the Middle East, and U.S. policy toward the region. Prior to her position as a senior fellow with the of Niyi Osundare, Saban Center for Middle East Policy at Brookings, she was a member of the State Department’s policy planning staff; a Middle East advisor at ExxonMobil Corporation; and director of a Council on Foreign Relations task force on America’s Iran policy. Author of medea betrayal Iran’s Long Reach and contributor to such works as Which Path to Persia? Options for a New American Strategy toward Iran , she is also founder and editor of Iran@Saban, an insightful blog about politics in and policy concerning Iran.

The sycamore trees that line the northern stretches of Vali Asr Avenue in Tehran arch overhead like a canopy. In the winter, their snowy branches frame a view of the The Poems of Niyi, Alborz Mountains where Tehranis escape to robert frost poems about hike or ski. On a summer day, the of Niyi Osundare Essay, leaves filter the sun and smog in the affluent northern neighborhoods, and medea betrayal quotes you can watch the temperature rise by The Poems ten degrees as you inch your way southward in the city's infamous traffic toward the heart of old Tehran. Vali Asr is said to be the longest street in advice to youth, the Middle East; and sometimes it feels like the only straight path in a nation whose course has been highly unpredictable and intensely complicated ever since the Osundare Essay, 1979 revolution which ousted the secular, pro-American shah and installed a theocracy led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. It was on Vali Asr, 18 years later, that young Iranians erupted in joy in the largest spontaneous public demonstrations the medea, capital had seen since the revolution.

The immediate cause for celebration in 1997 was the national team's World Cup qualification, but for many it was a belated response to the recent election of a president who promised reform. Mohammad Khatami's victory represented a moment when the of Niyi Osundare, country appeared on the cusp of medea quotes change again. His promises went largely unfulfilled, however, doomed by Osundare Essay the intractability of the defenders of Iran's religious orthodoxy—among them the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Hassan Rouhani is the seventh president of the Islamic Republic of robert about Iran, having assumed that office in of Niyi Osundare Essay, August 2013. Sheet Important? Born Hassan Fereidoun in 1948 in northern Iran, he attended seminary in Qom and the University of Tehran, and later earned a doctorate from Glasgow Caledonian University in Scotland. Rouhani was active in Iran's Islamic opposition from an early age and by the revolution was part of Osundare Essay Ayatollah Khomeini's inner circle. He served five terms in parliament and in advice to youth, other senior leadership positions throughout his career, and led Iran's nuclear negotiations until 2005. Essay? His presidential candidacy received the support of former presidents Khatami and Rafsanjani.

Yet, on the eve of another election in love, 2009, Iranians returned to Vali Asr in another powerful display of the will of the people. Tens of thousands of Iranians linked arms in a human chain that stretched the Osundare Essay, full 12 miles of Vali Asr to examples contraction express their support of reformist candidate Mir-Hossein Mousavi. Less than a week later, however, huge crowds gathered there again, this time to denounce the Osundare, apparently rigged victory of the incumbent, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, a man infamous for his bigotry and provocative policies. The protestors' initial chants of where is my vote? met with police batons and bullets. The violence that ended the demonstrations, and the show trials and other Stalinist tactics that followed, suggested that the theocracy no longer saw the need for quotes, even the fig leaf of semi-orchestrated elections, and instead had devolved to a more naked authoritarianism. With the rapid smashing of the opposition, Iran became more of a pariah state than ever, its streets gone silent. This episode appeared to extinguish the Islamic Republic's copious capacity for reinvention. But something happened along the The Poems Osundare Essay, way to the latest election, in June 2013: Iran's political narrative once again defied expectations. A brief and frost poems love unprecedentedly outspoken campaign gave voice to criticisms of the regime that might once have landed some of the of Niyi Essay, candidates in jail. In the end, it was the candidate who appealed most forcefully for and Second Generation Biomass of Biofuels, a new path who won the presidency, with a resounding majority. In the aftermath of the vote, throngs of Iranians once again poured onto Vali Asr for of Niyi Osundare, spur-of-the-moment street parties.

They celebrated not so much the victor, veteran cleric turned politician Hassan Rouhani, but the possibility that his election signified a pivot away from the regime's disastrous course of recent years. Even if this proves true—even if Tehran is stepping back from the brink of its ruinous battle with much of the robert poems, rest of the world—there is no guarantee that Rouhani's election will put an end to the uncertainty that has enveloped Iranian politics for more than three decades, or lessen the antagonism between the Iranian leadership and the West. Rouhani campaigned on a slogan of hope and The Poems of Niyi Osundare prudence, two commodities that have been in short supply since the 1979 revolution. Delivering on that promise may prove the toughest course the Islamic Republic has yet had to navigate. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, shah of Iran, reviews dignitaries in the great hall of Golestan Palace during celebrations of the 25th anniversary of his reign, in 1965.

Jack Garofalo/Paris Match via Getty Images. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, shah of Iran, reviews dignitaries in the great hall of Golestan Palace during celebrations of the 25th anniversary of his reign, in 1965. Jack Garofalo/Paris Match via Getty Images. From the Reign of the Shahs to an Enduring Revolution. Vali Asr was constructed after Persia's crumbling Qajar dynasty gave way in 1925 to an army-installed monarchy. Its original name, Pahlavi Avenue, honored the new self-proclaimed shah , or king, Reza Shah Pahlavi, who commissioned it. The broad boulevard became the central thoroughfare in Iran's capital, linking the royal palaces and advice to youth state institutions with the train station that was the anchor of the shah's industrialization effort. Over the next half-century, the country was transformed, both by the rapid modernization program, and by the regime's official embrace of the of Niyi Osundare Essay, West. Much of this transformation came under the reign of the second Pahlavi shah, Mohammad Reza, who was heir to his father's ambitions but not his leadership skills. His initial years at the helm of the Impact and Mitigation Measures, state proved rocky. Essay? In 1953, the shah briefly abandoned his throne in medea, a showdown with rivals who campaigned to nationalize Iran's oil industry.

The leader of of Niyi Essay this movement, Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh, was ousted in a coup orchestrated by Environmental and Mitigation on the Chilterns Washington and London, after which the monarchy was reinstated and reinforced. But for many Iranians, Mossadegh remains a national icon, and resentment over the role played by foreign powers in removing an elected Iranian leader persists to of Niyi Osundare Essay this day. Mohammad Reza Shah eventually found his footing, thanks in part to increasing American support. Washington appreciated the value of examples of isotonic contraction a reliable, energy-rich ally as a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Middle East, and the shah hungered for validation and influence. But American-Iranian relations were tempestuous from the Osundare, start—a peculiar stew of admiration and frost poems resentment on both sides.

Throughout the 1960s and '70s, however, it was a relationship that seemed to The Poems of Niyi Osundare serve both countries exceptionally well. Iran in this era became a swaggering state, a country of boundless opportunity. While courting superpowers both east and west, Tehran helped to orchestrate the historic transformation of the global oil industry, which transferred control—and profits—of the world's energy resources to the states that owned them. Fuelled by grandiose ambitions and revulsion toward traditionalism, the shah channeled his vast oil profits into a mad dash for quotes, modernity. Along the way, Iran made much progress. Osundare Essay? Most important—and often overlooked in the post-revolutionary demonization of the monarchy—millions of of isotonic contraction Iranians achieved a middle-class existence. The country became an international hotspot: Western bankers jostled for Iranian petrodollars; Harvard Business School opened a campus; tourists from of Niyi Osundare Essay around the world flocked to see the ruins of ancient Persia; diplomats clamored for a Tehran posting. But amid this rapid development, something was lost. Betrayal? Iranian society was in flux: its economy was simultaneously expanding and imploding, its religion and customs were under siege, its traditional channels of The Poems influence eroding under the pressure of a state determined to medea quotes assert its dominance. Intellectuals wrote dark parables about a nation so intoxicated with the Osundare Essay, West that it had lost its identity.

Even as the shah was pouring money into his notion of an ideal society, pockets of opposition were developing. Eventually, Pahlavi Avenue and Tehran's city center became the locus of another mode of change, this time driven from the streets of First Biomass Materials Iran rather than from its palaces. Over the course of 1978, protestors gathered here in Osundare Essay, ever-expanding numbers to why is sheet vent their frustrations with a political system in which power was concentrated in of Niyi, the hands of a single man. The upheaval on the streets culminated the following year in the shah’s ouster at the hands of an inchoate coalition of leftists, liberals and Shi’a Muslim clerics. Among the Environmental Impact and Mitigation Measures, protestors there was little consensus on what ought to replace the monarchy, but they coalesced around Ruhollah Khomeini, a revered ayatollah who had been exiled in 1964 for The Poems Osundare, protesting the shah’s reforms.

The shah was dumbfounded that his subjects would spurn his magnificent achievements. “The nation I had led to frost poems about love the threshold of progress, power, and self-confidence lay torn and bleeding,” he wrote in his memoirs, while he himself had been supplanted by a “worn, fanatic old man [who] was repeatedly telling the Iranian people how mean, miserable, and poverty-stricken they were”—a man who represented the very forces of traditionalism he had sought to eliminate. The shah's disbelief was echoed by of Niyi Essay much of the rest of the world. Religious radicalism is painfully familiar today; in 1979, however, Iran's upheaval scuttled the long-held assumption that economic development led inexorably to secularization and liberalization. The fall of Iran's monarchy proved to be the first of what would be numerous salvos in a worldwide, multi-generational struggle over the rightful role of Islam in political life. Immediately after the revolution, Iran's new leaders began re-casting the country to suit their aspirations. Even the street names were not safe. The capital of an Islamic Republic could not host a Roosevelt Avenue or other streets with names lionizing Western allies. And certainly its main drag could not pay tribute to robert the reviled monarch who had just been overthrown.

Pahlavi Avenue was renamed multiple times, consistent with the shifting fortunes in the skirmish for post-revolutionary authority. The revolutionaries finally settled on Vali Asr, a tribute to the 12th Imam, who disappeared in of Niyi Essay, the ninth century and whose return is awaited as a signal of world salvation. For Shi'a Muslims, the phrase Vali Asr symbolizes hope in a just future; for Iranians, the revolution has brought anything but. The revolutionary state jettisoned many other vestiges of monarchical Iran. Gone were the bars and the discos, the examples, Western tourists and businessmen, the short skirts and bikinis, and any other hints of of Niyi Essay secularism. Hijab , or modest Islamic dress, quickly went from examples of isotonic fashion statement to fiercely-enforced legal requirement. Anti-American protests, which culminated in the November 1979 seizure of the U.S. Embassy and the 14-month hostage crisis, eviscerated all traces of the pre-revolutionary romance with the West. Dramatic as these changes were, perhaps the most amazing aspect of Iran's post-revolutionary order has been its sheer endurance.

The Islamic Republic has survived every calamity short of the plague: an invasion and a brutish war; internal insurgencies; the The Poems of Niyi Essay, death of medea betrayal its charismatic founder; catastrophes both natural and man-made; and of Niyi Osundare recently an almost wholesale amputation from the medea betrayal quotes, international financial system thanks to Osundare Essay economic sanctions. Yet somehow the Islamic Republic is still standing. In Tehran, supporters of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini hold his poster aloft in advice to youth, a January 1979 demonstration against of Niyi the shah. In Tehran, supporters of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini hold his poster aloft in a January 1979 demonstration against robert frost about the shah. A Ceremonial Presidency Evolves in the Islamic Republic. Out of the revolutionary chaos, a new system of government evolved. A hastily-organized referendum endorsed the vague notion of an Islamic Republic. In the Essay, contentious debate over a new constitution, Ayatollah Khomeini and his partisans pressed to accord ultimate power to an unelected supreme leader, a post assumed—naturally—by Khomeini himself. Endowing the head of government with a divine mandate upended centuries of Shi'a theology and unnerved many of examples Iran's senior clerics. But the imam's thundering insistence overrode every objection. Presidents of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

These transformations might suggest that the revolution changed everything about Iran, but it left much intact as well, including Iran's century-old parliament, an assortment of other elective offices, and a constitution that bears some resemblance to one developed during a proto-democratic uprising 60 years earlier. Many of the The Poems Osundare Essay, monarchy's policies and organizations were simply repurposed with an Islamic bent. The tensions and contradictions that characterize the Islamic Republic today reflect the uneasy bargain negotiated among the disparate interests that joined forces to advice to youth oust the shah. It seems fitting that the The Poems Essay, presidency provoked real debate among the examples of isotonic, framers of the of Niyi Osundare Essay, new system from the quotes, start. During the years that followed, as the regime's partisans jostled for power, this office would serve, variously, as the center of gravity for Iran's democratic aspirations, as a tangible symbol of the revolution's republican intentions and, for the revolutionary elites, as an advantageous perch for The Poems Essay, influence peddling.

However, during the first decade after the revolution, the presidency remained largely ceremonial. Policy was shaped primarily by Khomeini, along with the parliament and the prime minister. Iran's dominant political and religious authority is the supreme leader, a position designed by the revolution's driving force, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Following Khomeini's 1989 death, mid-ranking cleric Ali Khamenei was selected to succeed him after serving two terms as president. Like other Iranian leaders, Khamenei was trained in seminaries and robert frost love actively opposed the shah. He was wounded in a 1981 terrorist attack that cost the use of his right arm. As supreme leader, he has steadily expanded the authority of the office. He endorsed Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's disputed re-election of 2009, describing the opposition as seditionists and influenced by Osundare Western conspiracies. Early occupants of the and Second Biomass Materials, presidency proved unlucky: Iran's first post-revolutionary president broke with the of Niyi Essay, regime and had to flee for his life; his replacement was killed in a terrorist attack. Examples Of Isotonic Contraction? On the of Niyi Osundare, third try, in August 1981, Iranians elected mid-ranking cleric Ali Khamenei as president.

The position would serve him far better than his predecessors, eventually launching him into the exalted status of supreme leader, successor to Khomeini. Khamenei's two terms as president coincided with a desperate time for the fledgling theocracy, when the advice to youth, country was consumed by the sacred defense it was forced to mount to fend off the September 1980 invasion by Saddam Hussein's Iraq. The war presented Tehran with an existential crisis, exacerbated by the country's isolation and by the turmoil and purges that had devastated the military establishment. For all its hazards, however, the The Poems Osundare, conflict had an robert poems about love upside for Osundare, Khomeini. An economy disrupted by revolution experienced a short-term boost thanks to the demands of wartime production, and Iranians rallied around a regime that for many bore little resemblance to their revolutionary aspirations.

Amid the First and Second Biomass Materials for Production, sufferings of war, the new state's authority was strengthened, the achievements of the revolution consolidated. And when Iraq's invasion was successfully repulsed, the ayatollahs went on the offensive. Spurning a 1982 ceasefire proposal that promised billions in of Niyi Osundare, reparations from the Gulf states, Khomeini continued the Impact Assessment on the Chilterns, conflict for six more years in an increasingly futile effort to topple Saddam. Millions of Iranians were killed, wounded or displaced; key ports were destroyed; vital oil export routes and facilities were disrupted; and the economy and the war effort were severely constrained by sanctions. Jean-Claude Delmas/AFP/Getty Images. Brookings Senior Fellow Bruce Riedel calls the Iran-Iraq War devastating. Khomeini finally conceded the of Niyi Osundare Essay, war's failure in examples of isotonic contraction, 1988. The decision to accept a cease-fire with Saddam, which he famously compared to drinking from The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay a poisoned chalice, contravened his frequent invocations of advice to youth victory at any cost, and The Poems came over the objections of his own commanders as well as many of the and Mitigation Measures Chilterns, regime's radicals. The Poems Osundare Essay? But Iran had little alternative: challenges from the opposition and on the streets were mounting; its economy was near collapse; and Tehran lacked the money or materials necessary to achieve a decisive military victory. Frost About? For many, however, the wounds of the conflict remain raw, and bitterness over international indifference toward Tehran's suffering and complicity in Saddam's crimes still rankles.

The politician tapped to bring the war to a satisfactory conclusion was Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, then-speaker of the parliament and a cleric who was especially close to The Poems of Niyi Osundare Khomeini. Generation Biomass For Production Of Biofuels? Rafsanjani was made acting commander-in-chief in mid-1988, and of Niyi Osundare he ended the war expeditiously and without remorse. Then, when Khomeini died in important, 1989, Rafsanjani played a central role in boosting his revolutionary comrade Khamenei into the post of supreme leader, while he himself moved seamlessly into of Niyi, the newly expanded presidency. Ayatollah Rafsanjani has been one of the why is, key figures in Iran for the past half century. He studied theology in Qom where he became a follower of Ayatollah Khomeini and The Poems was a member of advice to youth Iran's Revolutionary Council. He has served as speaker of the Majlis, Iran's parliament; commander-in-chief of the armed forces during the final months of the Iraq war; president for two terms; and chairman of the The Poems of Niyi, Expediency Council, a powerful state institution.

During and after his presidential terms, he was considered a centrist with pragmatic tendencies. Although disqualified from First Biomass Materials of Biofuels running in the 2013 presidential election, he backed the eventual winner, Hassan Rouhani. BBC News has called him the richest man in Iran. Rafsanjani's presidency proved decisive for Iran. He came into office determined to enact an ambitious reconstruction program, and The Poems of Niyi Essay his efforts to Environmental Impact Measures on the Chilterns undertake an economic and diplomatic rehabilitation of his country were hard-fought, if not wholly successful. But his policies sparked waves of The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay resistance—first, from a liberalizing reform movement and then, in counter-reaction, from a new generation of hardliners. Both movements imploded of their own volition, leaving in their wake a country ripe for advice to youth, Rafsanjani-style moderation and pragmatism—which in turn would later lead to a strange kind of comeback for the Islamic Republic's most storied politician. Supporters of The Poems Osundare nuclear negotiator and presidential candidate Saeed Jalili display his campaign posters next to a banner honoring Ayatollah Khomeini inside Tehran's Heydarnia Stadium for a campaign rally.

Supporters of nuclear negotiator and presidential candidate Saeed Jalili display his campaign posters next to a banner honoring Ayatollah Khomeini inside Tehran's Heydarnia Stadium for a campaign rally. The 2013 Presidential Election: 686 Applicants, Only Eight Contenders. In 2013, nearly a quarter century after Rafsanjani's first election to the presidency—literally a lifetime in a country where two-thirds of the population is Assessment Measures on the Chilterns AONB below the age of Osundare Essay 30—the possibility of his return to the office loomed large as the latest ballot approached. He had already served two terms, from 1989 to 1997, and advice to youth had sought a third in 2005, in a tight race against Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, then mayor of Tehran. He lost that contest in a run-off, a defeat that stung the of Niyi, establishment and catapulted the little-known Ahmadinejad into the limelight. Ahmadinejad's presidency reversed the trajectory of Iran's post-war path of moderation, and put the revolution back on a collision course with the international community. This time around, after months of public vacillation, Rafsanjani arrived to register his candidacy at the last possible moment, creating a perfectly orchestrated election surprise. His dramatic bid captivated an Iranian political establishment that had been in medea betrayal, a state of suspended animation for four years, ever since the massive street protests that erupted after Ahmadinejad's dubious 2009 reelection. Not that Rafsanjani's candidacy was universally welcomed. Over the Osundare, years, the disappointments of contraction his tenure and of Niyi Essay his reputation for opportunism and corruption had eroded public support, perhaps accounting for the failure of the balance sheet important his last two campaigns (a 2000 bid for the parliament as well as the 2005 presidential race).

But he remains a heavyweight. The Poems? And after the havoc wrought by Ahmadinejad, the prospective candidacy of a politician still considered a man of action and and Mitigation Measures substance buoyed hopes for a better future. Iranian elections adhere to The Poems Osundare Essay an idiosyncratic set of procedures. While anyone can toss a hat into the ring, a clerical oversight body—the Council of Impact Assessment Measures on the Chilterns AONB Guardians—determines who is of Niyi Essay permitted to run. The eligibility criteria are vague enough to enable the advice to youth, regime to Osundare cull all but a few hand-picked insiders. In a bizarre turn of events, the Guardians rejected Rafsanjani's bid for another go at the office he had held for advice to youth, eight years. However absurd the Islamic Republic's vetting process has been in the past—and more than two dozen elections over Essay the course of 34 years have provided abundant fodder for ridicule—the ruling that one of the regime's founders was unfit to Generation Biomass Materials for Production run for The Poems Essay, the presidency carried the farce to a new level.

Rafsanjani's failed bid remains one of the more curious factors in an astonishing election. Perhaps it was simply textbook political theater from the and Mitigation Measures on the, regime's most skilled showman, his snubbing meant to reinforce the The Poems Osundare, need for a return to realism, thus improving the prospects for the candidate closest to his own views and experience—Hassan Rouhani. The sixth president of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad earned a reputation as an contraction unpredictable hardliner who reversed the liberalization promoted by his predecessor, reformist Mohammed Khatami. Prior to his 2005 election, Ahmadinejad served as mayor of Tehran and a provincial governor. His comments denying the Holocaust and of Niyi Osundare Essay raising doubts about al Qaeda's role in the 9/11 attacks, plus his contested 2009 re-election victory, created fierce opposition at home and abroad.

After his presidency, Ayatollah Khamenei appointed him to the Expediency Council, where he now serves alongside such notables as Hashemi Rafsanjani, Hassan Rouhani, Ali Akbar Velayati and Mohammed Reza Aref. As Rafsanjani's understudy, Rouhani is a quintessential creation of Iran's post-revolutionary order. Advice To Youth? He trained in the seminary and, like many young Iranian clerics in of Niyi, the 1960s, became active in First Materials of Biofuels, the opposition to The Poems Osundare the shah, which led to repeated arrests. Examples Of Isotonic Contraction? Having become part of Khomeini's inner circle during the ayatollah's final months in exile, he has held influential positions throughout the post-revolutionary period. But it was his role as a nuclear negotiator, an extension of The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay his 16-year tenure as the secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council, that hurtled Rouhani into the eye of the hurricane, and brought him to the attention of the examples of isotonic contraction, world, which had hitherto taken little notice of him.

Representing Iran in talks with Europe from 2003 to 2005—an effort by the Iranian regime to stave off reprisals over its just-disclosed nuclear program—Rouhani helped hammer out an agreement that suspended Iran's most worrisome nuclear activities. To date it remains Iran's most significant concession on the nuclear issue, and The Poems Osundare Essay it earned Rouhani the nickname the sheikh of diplomacy for his role in defusing a mounting clash with the West. Yet as the Environmental Measures on the Chilterns AONB, sense of threat receded, and few of the incentives promised by European negotiators for Iranian cooperation materialized, Tehran quickly soured on The Poems Osundare the deal. Having only warily endorsed the 2003 suspension, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei quashed it less than two years later, resuming the nuclear program and championing defiance in tune with Iran's new president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Rouhani resigned his responsibility for the nuclear portfolio, and emerged as the whipping boy for Iran's ascendant hardliners. Examples Of Isotonic Contraction? In their eyes, Rouhani's diplomacy represented a surrender to the rapacious West, exchanging diamonds for The Poems of Niyi Essay, peanuts, conceding Iran's resources and its influence as irresponsibly as the monarchy had. While Rouhani remained a senior functionary in the Iranian system during the Ahmadinejad presidency, he was mostly sidelined to a government think tank. From there, he inveighed in surprisingly frank tones against Ahmadinejad's ideologically-driven excesses. Sometimes he even appeared to be serving as an informal spokesman for Iran's embattled realists, most of whom had been shunted aside in the wake of Ahmadinejad's giddy arrival on the scene. During this period he also wrote one of the only truly interesting memoirs of recent Iranian political history, divulging new details about the nuclear program, sharing insider gossip and dispensing the blunt truths that are his hallmark. Rouhani held a strange sinecure on the fringes of official respectability and relevance in these years, publicly excoriated by Khamenei for the nuclear negotiations he had led, yet somehow retaining his close bond with the supreme leader.

So it was perhaps not surprising that out of 686 applicants, Rouhani was one of the eight candidates —all of them men of the system, and most of an unabashedly conservative bent— to medea receive the of Niyi Osundare, nod from the Council of Guardians. The slate elicited little excitement and, after the short-lived commotion over advice to youth Rafsanjani, many observers anticipated an anodyne campaign, a display of of Niyi Osundare Essay mindless deference to the regime's ideological strictures. Expectations reverted to what had become the medea quotes, conventional wisdom ever since Ahmadinejad's contested reelection: that Khamenei preferred, indeed required, an unquestioning acolyte in the presidency. This would explain his elevation and assiduous defense of Ahmadinejad, his endorsement of the 2009 electoral fraud, and The Poems the earlier backlash against the reformist Khatami. Behrouz Mehri/AFP/Getty Images. Like so many widely held perceptions of Iran, however, the assumption that Ahmadinejad had ever been merely a pliant errand boy for Iran's hardliners misses the mark. That may have been the intention, but Ahmadinejad eclipsed these expectations and Assessment and Mitigation Measures AONB the presidency's limited powers, overturning the of Niyi, revolutionary state's protocols and medea quotes alarming the establishment. Late in Essay, his second term, after he had overstepped one time too often by attempting to fire the intelligence minister over the supreme leader's objections, Khamenei reined him in—which only reinforced presumptions that the the balance sheet, supreme leader would not make the same mistake again. This time he would anoint a trusted subordinate who would pose no challenge to his own primacy. Khamenei's public protestations that he had no favored candidate elicited practically audible derision. Everything he had said in the run-up to The Poems the race spoke volumes to the contrary.

The supreme leader framed the contraction, parameters governing the election in unambiguous fashion: the ballot must be a pro-regime epic; candidates must avoid any hint of concessions to [Iran's] enemies; and any repeat of the mass unrest that erupted four years earlier would not be tolerated. Given these criteria, Iran's incumbent nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili seemed spot-on for of Niyi Osundare, consecration. Advice To Youth? His piety was well-established, he had spent several years working in Khamenei's office, and since 2007 he had led Iran's nuclear negotiations, where he had transformed obfuscation into an art form, stonewalling his adversaries as he defended Tehran's determination to retain its nuclear prerogatives. The Poems? His service in advice to youth, the war against Iraq, in which he had lost his right leg, only underscored the depth of his commitment to the Islamic Republic. Jalili's main competition looked to come from another next-generation conservative, Tehran mayor Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf. Of Niyi Osundare Essay? A precocious hero in the Iran-Iraq war, Qalibaf had two main assets in the race.

First, he had impeccable credentials on Khamenei's highest priority: regime stability. In 1999, Qalibaf signed an unprecedented letter by Environmental and Mitigation Measures AONB senior military commanders publicly rebuking then-President Khatami over his handling of student protests; Qalibaf even boasted of his own role in cracking skulls during the quashing of those demonstrations. Second, his position as mayor of Tehran bestowed upon him a built-in popular base and a reputation for results on quality-of-life issues. The other candidates represented an array of interest groups and political tendencies. That their number included a representative of Iran's beleaguered reformist front, respected technocrat Mohammad Reza Aref, seemed a small but hopeful sign. The inclusion of a credible reformist candidate signaled the rehabilitation of the faction, as well as an acknowledgment that the wholesale domination of Iran's conservatives and hardliners has been neither successful nor sustainable. Ahmadinejad played an outsized if unintentional role in advancing this realization.

Outside Iran, the former president is best known for his Holocaust denial and anti-Israeli invective, his unsettling messianism and The Poems of Niyi Essay his wild-eyed ruminations. Within Iran's establishment, such rhetoric was not necessarily unwelcome. But his proclivity for chaos and crisis was, and Generation Materials of Biofuels it alienated even the The Poems of Niyi Essay, hardliners who had backed him. Thanks to skyrocketing oil prices, Ahmadinejad had assumed office during a period of unprecedented prosperity in Iran. Yet the economy cratered under his volatile stewardship, and many of the modest improvements in the social and political atmosphere effected during the Khatami presidency were also undone. The fallout from his reckless rhetoric and policies, particularly as it affected people's pocketbooks, cost him much of his initial public support and made him persona non grata within the establishment. For that reason, the campaign to succeed Ahmadinejad was characterized by an almost palpable determination to repudiate him. Iran's 2013 presidential candidates pose for a group picture after a live debate in Tehran on state television, one week prior to the election. (L to R): Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel; Saeed Jalili; Hassan Rouhani; Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf; Mohsen Rezaei; Mohammad Reza Aref; Ali Akbar Velayati; Mohammad Gharazi; and anchor Morteza Heidari. Mehdi Dehghan/AFP/Getty Images. Iran's 2013 presidential candidates pose for a group picture after a live debate in Tehran on medea state television, one week prior to the election. The Poems? (L to R): Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel; Saeed Jalili; Hassan Rouhani; Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf; Mohsen Rezaei; Mohammad Reza Aref; Ali Akbar Velayati; Mohammad Gharazi; and anchor Morteza Heidari. Mehdi Dehghan/AFP/Getty Images.

An Inconceivable Twist in the Presidential Campaign. A funny thing happened on First and Second Generation Materials for Production of Biofuels the way to the conservative cakewalk in Iran: a supposed sleeper of a presidential campaign got interesting. Essay? Rouhani himself had much to do with sending the anticipated narrative off the rails. This was a surprise. By virtue of and Second Materials for Production of Biofuels his long-standing association with the regime, he was expected to toe the official line. Yet Rouhani's every move along Iran's short campaign trail seemed calculated to shake things up. Atta Kenare/AFP/Getty Images.

It is of Niyi difficult to pinpoint precisely when it became clear that Rouhani did not intend to run a cautious campaign. Was it his appeal for why is the balance sheet, the release of political prisoners, including detained reformist leaders Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, which he made even before his candidacy was approved? Was it his adoption of the symbol of a big key that would unlock big problems for Iran? Or was it his decision to color-code his campaign with purple, a tactic that seemed perilously reminiscent of the green wave of support for Mousavi that the regime had rolled back with such force in the previous election? It might have been an appearance on state television when Rouhani upbraided an interviewer for misrepresenting his record on of Niyi Essay the nuclear issue and First Biomass for Production of Biofuels instructed him to re-read his memoir to The Poems get his facts right. He sparred just as aggressively with the Jalili campaign, whose staff included several members of the incumbent negotiating team. For Rouhani to have broached this discussion, knowing how obsessed the leadership is with retaining its nuclear infrastructure and presenting a united front to the world, was a particularly daring move. Frost Poems? And dispensing with protocol and the state broadcasters, Rouhani released his campaign video straight to YouTube, where its emphasis on his close ties with Iran's leadership and of Niyi Essay his own achievements alternated with poetic appeals for advice to youth, a new spring after a long, cold winter. One of the biggest surprises came 10 days before the ballot, when Rouhani travelled to Iran's historic capital of Isfahan to stump for votes. While there, he joined the mourning procession for a dissident cleric who had penned a public letter a decade earlier that condemned the of Niyi Essay, regime for deviation, abuse and lawlessness and of isotonic contraction described its leadership as henchmen of tyranny. It did not seem to bother Rouhani that the chants of support for his campaign were interspersed with denunciations of Khamenei and Essay the theocratic system.

Amazingly, no formal recriminations against the candidate were issued afterward. In the end, however, while Rouhani's boundary-bashing may have set the stage, it was a televised debate among all the candidates that really broke the presidential race wide open. Generation Biomass Materials For Production? The fact that the debates were held at Osundare Essay, all raised eyebrows. Ahmadinejad's deft and dangerous exploitation of the 2009 debates—when he wielded intelligence files on television as a prop to accuse his rivals of the balance corruption and nepotism—had sparked an uproar. Many expected that the regime would simply dispense with debates. Instead, state television organized three lengthy debates, culminating in a four-and-a-half hour foreign policy fisticuffs that laid bare Iran's deep strategic divide over nuclear diplomacy and the regime's approach to the world. Rouhani, who had mounted a pugnacious defense of his own nuclear record while on the campaign trail, stayed true to form during the debate, disparaging Jalili as an unsophisticated puritan whose only negotiating skill was verbosity. And his zinger—that Iran needs working factories as much as it needs spinning centrifuges—was considered catchy enough that his campaign tweeted a variation on it within moments of his having uttered it. However, the most powerful deviations from the official narrative were voiced not by Rouhani but by other conservatives.

Several questioned why Jalili, the presumptive front-runner, had not secured a deal in talks with the West, and challenged the sense of resistance on the nuclear issue if it came at the cost of keeping Iran's population hungry. Ali Akbar Velayati, the long-time foreign minister who owes his entire career in politics to his close relationship to Khamenei, delivered the most devastating blows. He lectured Jalili on the difference between diplomacy and philosophy: diplomacy, he noted archly, is intended to obtain results and lessen sanctions. We can't expect everything and give nothing, Velayati scolded his younger nemesis, adding that Jalili's handling of the latest round of Osundare Essay talks definitely shows that you do not really want to make any progress on the issue. The more conservative candidates fought back, with Qalibaf scorning Velayati for sipping coffee with the French president even as Baghdad strafed Iranian troops via fighter jets provided by Paris. For the hardliners, diplomacy is of dubious value in safeguarding Iran's revolution from international antagonism. Impact Assessment And Mitigation On The AONB? Jalili took pains to underscore that he was merely implementing Khamenei's mandate at the negotiating table, a defense eerily reminiscent of that previously offered by Rouhani himself.

In the context of the election, however, Jalili's insistence that he was following orders only The Poems of Niyi made the attacks on betrayal him seem that much more of a mutiny against the unpopular establishment. The debate was far more significant than simply another sharp-elbowed display by an elite known for its quarrelsomeness. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare? The suddenly candid discourse on such a sensitive subject betrays the Iranian establishment’s awareness of the regime's increasing vulnerability. Nothing like this had ever happened before, and of isotonic certainly not on live state television, with approximately two-thirds of the country watching. In Tehran’s public rhetoric, the nuclear program represents the The Poems, nation’s glory as well as its capacity to withstand the “bullying” of the West.

Any deviation from the official line is considered disloyal as well as dangerous, and advice to youth unlike almost every other issue, where repression has failed to staunch freewheeling debate, the Osundare, nuclear program had remained sacrosanct. So the airing of a frank, in-depth discussion of the nuclear issue one week before the vote seemed an inconceivable twist in the campaign. The nuclear debate served as the writing on the wall. It was an advice to youth intervention, initiated by some of the regime's most stalwart supporters, intended to Osundare Essay rescue the system by sheet conceding its precariousness and appealing for pragmatism to rescue it. And it was an acknowledgement that the sanctions-induced miseries of the Iranian public could no longer be assuaged with the nuclear pageantry of the Ahmadinejad era, or even the formerly reliable appeals to the system's unique blend of religion and nationalism. As the campaign entered its final week, the conventional wisdom about the inevitability of a conservative victory was obliterated, almost as if a spell had been broken. Two final developments sealed the Osundare, election's outcome.

Working on the sidelines, Rafsanjani hammered out a painstaking truce with the reform faction, headed by former president Khatami, which eased the frost poems, departure of the only real reformist in the race, Mohammad Reza Aref. This bargain represented a dramatic shift in Iran's internal power struggles. After more than a decade of rivalry and, at times, bare-fisted animosity, the The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay, regime's liberalizing reformers aligned with its more conservative realists. Why Is The Balance Important? The compact proved key to The Poems consolidating a wide swath of Iranian public opinion behind Rouhani. Meanwhile, despite similar machinations, the conservatives failed to coalesce around a single candidate. Examples Of Isotonic Contraction? Ill-suited to the new environment of truth-telling on the nuclear issue, the campaigns of both Jalili and Qalibaf appeared to The Poems Osundare falter as the race drew to a close. To generate a conservative victory at this stage would have required blatant manipulation of the vote, a risk that the regime may not have been willing to take, particularly with many of its neighbors in an unprecedented state of upheaval. In the sheet important, final days of the campaign, Vali Asr Avenue and other Iranian streets were plastered with flashy campaign paraphernalia, not just for the presidential contenders but also for the 300,000 candidates running for local positions.

A country whose democratic aspirations had been beaten back only four years before risked hoping again, and Essay returned to the polls in blockbuster numbers. And this time Iranians opted to turn the medea quotes, big key. Rouhani took the presidency in the first ballot with an unexpectedly strong plurality. Tehranis, their expectations tempered by bitter experience, waited for the formal declaration, after a protracted and suspenseful night of vote-counting, before erupting into mass celebrations—once again on Vali Asr. Technicians work inside a uranium conversion facility in of Niyi, 2005 just outside the city of Isfahan in central Iran. Technicians work inside a uranium conversion facility in 2005 just outside the city of Isfahan in central Iran. A Lack of why is the balance important Trust on the Nuclear Issue. Like so much about of Niyi Osundare Essay Iran, the frost poems, election provokes divergent interpretations.

Did an ossifying regime accede to overwhelming public demand for more responsible leadership, or did the revolution's hard-nosed stalwarts orchestrate a shift in its center of of Niyi Osundare Essay gravity away from its bellicose extremes? The truth likely lies somewhere in the middle; in other words, the election was another untidy improvisation by a regime that is acutely aware of its own vulnerabilities and has made an art form of survival under the most inauspicious circumstances. How close is Iran to having nuclear weapons and what can America do about it? For a usual suspect, Iran's new president is an sheet unusual character. Beyond his seminary studies, he also received a degree from Tehran University and pursued a doctorate in constitutional law at of Niyi Osundare Essay, Glasgow Caledonian University, even as he climbed the examples contraction, ranks of the bureaucracy in Osundare Essay, a theocracy that had little use for European credentials. When much of the Iranian elite did little more than grumble about robert love Ahmadinejad's provocative policies, Rouhani boldly denounced his recklessness and highlighted the costs to the economy. Like his mentor Rafsanjani a quarter-century ago, Rouhani appears to have been tapped to effect a turnaround—to staunch a crisis and salvage the revolution from its own failings.

But his past political affiliations lie closer to of Niyi Osundare Iran's traditional conservatives than to the leftists who spearheaded the reform movement 15 years ago. In seeking to transcend the trap of partisanship, however, he argues that he represents the reasonable faction, which he describes as being made up of all those Iranian politicians who are interested first and foremost in First and Second Generation Biomass, problem-solving. This is a moment of tremendous opportunity for Washington, although it offers no easy answers. In fact, Rouhani's very moderation may make things harder by eroding international support for of Niyi Osundare, sanctions and in Environmental and Mitigation Measures, turn stiffening the spines of Iran's hardliners. Khamenei still holds all the cards in Iran, and the nuclear issue is not a presidential prerogative. Osundare Essay? For some in Washington, where distrust of self-proclaimed Iranian moderates runs deep, the new president's appeal for the middle ground is a dangerous deception. Why Is Sheet? And turmoil elsewhere in the region, particularly in Syria where Washington and Tehran are backing opposing sides, may put a nuclear deal even further out of reach. Moreover, the presumption that Rouhani will drive an easier bargain may be overly optimistic. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare? The Europeans who sat across the contraction, table from Osundare Essay him during his time as Iran's nuclear negotiator remember him as a tough customer. And his recent track record underscores the difficulty of expecting too much from Rouhani on the nuclear issue.

The only recent progress on this issue came in 2009, with a tentative agreement to medea export much of Iran's enriched uranium in exchange for Western-supplied fuel rods for its medical research reactor. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare Essay? Ironically, the primary Iranian proponent of this arrangement was Ahmadinejad, whereas Rouhani played a vocal role in scuttling the robert about love, deal, which he described as illegal, a mistake, and a Western attempt to deprive Iran of of Niyi Osundare Essay its uranium stockpile. Impact On The? These criticisms helped persuade Khamenei to back away from an initial acceptance of the agreement, sending Iran further down a path of international isolation and pressure. On the merits, the nuclear crisis need not be intractable. Washington could tolerate some low-level enrichment in Iran, so long as its scope is capped and of Niyi Osundare an inspection regime to ensure absolute transparency is implemented. Rouhani's repeated references to transparency signal that Tehran may be willing to accept additional oversight. With regard to Iran's repeated insistence that the advice to youth, West acknowledge its self-described legitimate rights to the full fuel cycle under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), some diplomatic sophistry and rhetorical creativity should be able to The Poems Essay facilitate a mutually acceptable formulation. Still, the substantive disagreements that have thus far stymied any breakthroughs will not disappear with a more pragmatic Iranian negotiating team.

It will be an uphill battle to persuade Tehran to put strong enough limits on the size and scope of its nuclear program in sufficient fashion to reassure the international community. Iranians argue that negotiations should execute a reciprocal—and equivalent—exchange. However, Washington and its European partners see grounds for no such equivalence. For them, Iran is the transgressor, having concealed its nuclear activities for 18 years and having failed for more than a decade since their revelation to fully adhere to NPT safeguards obligations or satisfy U.N. Security Council demands. Washington and its partners expect any deal will begin with tangible Iranian concessions. The efficacy of the sanctions program has only robert poems exacerbated this disconnect. With Iran having paid such a high price for Essay, its nuclear ambitions, Iranian officials may now demand a commensurately large reward in exchange for constraining the program.

Could this be the year for an engagement with Iran that 'is honest and why is the balance sheet grounded in mutual respect'? The fundamental obstacle to real progress is the lack of Essay trust between the two sides—validated by why is important their respective historical narratives and exacerbated by their contentious domestic politics. Can the international community trust Tehran to The Poems Osundare Essay adhere to any commitments it may make? And can Iran's isolated, ideological leadership trust the world sufficiently to dare to compromise? Both Iran and America now have presidents who campaigned on the idea of advice to youth hope, but as Iran's nuclear program continues to advance, it will take more than hope to build confidence in of Niyi Osundare Essay, each other. Tehran, August 12, 2013: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani attends an open session of parliament to debate his proposed cabinet. President Rouhani told parliament that his government's priorities will be easing tensions with the outside world and improving the sanctions-battered economy. Tehran, August 12, 2013: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani attends an advice to youth open session of parliament to debate his proposed cabinet. President Rouhani told parliament that his government's priorities will be easing tensions with the outside world and improving the The Poems of Niyi Osundare, sanctions-battered economy.

Rouhani, The West and the Road Ahead. Three decades of rule by betrayal a revolutionary Islamic regime has generated a political reality that in many ways fails to conform to the ideological imperatives of its founders—or, for that matter, to the one-dimensional depiction that has become entrenched in the Western imagination. Iran remains a place of jarring contradictions. It is at The Poems Essay, once an autocratic system, governed by the whims of advice to youth a ruler who claims a divine mandate, and at the same time a fractious country shaped by factional competition and the institutions of representative rule. The Poems Of Niyi Osundare Essay? Oddly enough, the secret to the Iranian regime's survival may lie in this very volatility. The dual and dueling institutions of the Islamic Republic are in its DNA, inciting the power struggles that ultimately determine Tehran's decisions.

These struggles have proved an advice to youth effective mechanism for channeling competition, and, through carefully controlled but not always pre-ordained elections, generating some sense of buy-in among Iran's citizens. The Islamic Republic's unpredictability belies an unsteady but persistent stability. When the devastating sanctions that were the The Poems, byproduct of the nuclear crisis threatened this equilibrium, the system stepped in to right itself again, and there is now reason to hope that the crisis can be managed to medea the satisfaction of The Poems Osundare both Iran and the West. But, there is also reason to worry that this self-correction will not happen. We expect revolutions to diminish in fervor, to modulate fiery tenor and rationalize unconventional policies, once the chaos and violence that accompanies any sudden change has subsided. The Iranian Revolution has not followed this model. Generation Materials For Production Of Biofuels? Despite substantive changes during its 34-year history, the Islamic Republic has yet to fully embrace the moderation that should herald the twilight of the revolution. It is still too soon to say if Rouhani's election will be the harbinger of a durable Thermidor for of Niyi Osundare, Iran's theocracy. Fars News Agency. The new president's initial steps have given reason for tempered optimism. Though his cabinet nods have largely bypassed Iran's best-known reformists, he has appointed Mohammad Javad Zarif, a much-admired diplomat with an unusually rich Washington rolodex, as foreign minister and apparently tasked him with responsibility for the nuclear talks.

And he has put in advice to youth, place what amounts to an Islamic Republic dream team on of Niyi Osundare Essay the economy—a slate of ministers with considerable technocratic credentials, substantial experience, and sheet real commitment to market-based reforms and foreign investment. Perhaps most important, even in his earliest official moves, President Rouhani has reinforced the of Niyi Osundare, perception that his election is intended to Environmental Impact Assessment Measures on the Chilterns serve as a conduit for resolving the nuclear standoff. He invited former European Union foreign policy chief Javier Solana—who negotiated with Tehran for years on the nuclear issue—to attend his inauguration, and of Niyi Essay he has continued to advocate negotiations with Washington on the basis that diplomacy can produce a worthwhile resolution to advice to youth the crisis. Anticipating how Iran's story will unfold from here is impossible. Its peaceful, popular revolution begat a vicious theocracy; since then, each triumph for one of the regime's rival factions has only foreshadowed a subsequent reversal.

The half-life of predictions about Iranian politics is the blink of an eye. Perhaps that accounts for America's fascination with Iran's fate. Iran is the country whose break with the West ended our innocence about the The Poems Osundare Essay, world's affections, and whose government has kept our own leaders up at betrayal, night for more than a generation. We watched its revolution play out on national television, and lived through the hostage crisis courtesy of Ted Koppel's nightly updates. We have followed the roller-coaster ride of its political turmoil, worn green in The Poems Essay, solidarity with its short-lived opposition movement, and jeered the loathsome Ahmadinejad in late-night parodies. August 2009, Kenneth Pollack, Daniel Byman, Martin Indyk, Suzanne Maloney, Michael O’Hanlon, Bruce Riedel More Brookings research on robert about Iran. Though no one can say for of Niyi, certain what the Rouhani era will bring, now that an advice to youth election that was expected to consolidate authority in the hands of defiant theocrats has unexpectedly opened a tentative door to conciliation, we are hoping that the tide has turned at Essay, last. Clearly many in Iran harbor that same wish.

A few days after the about love, election celebrations, Iranians once again jammed the streets of its cities in joyful demonstrations. The national team had qualified for the World Cup and, just as in 1997, the confluence of the The Poems, two successes—on the playing field and in the political arena—seemed almost too good to and Second Biomass Materials for Production be true. Iranians have been hardened by disappointments and reversals; they know that the path of political change will be long and circuitous. Still, they take their victories where they can and, in Essay, the cool of a summer evening, hope stretches all along Vali Asr, from one end of advice to youth Tehran to the other. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on The Poems of Niyi Osundare Facebook . Like other products of the Impact and Mitigation AONB, Institution, The Brookings Essay is The Poems of Niyi Osundare Essay intended to betrayal quotes contribute to discussion and stimulate debate on important issues.

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