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ns essay AFGHANISTAN: THE MAKING OF U.S. POLICY, 1973-1990. by Steve Galster. The year was 1979. The country, of course, was Afghanistan.

And one decade later, some people who had believed in that message were celebrating one of the the triangle start, most sensational U.S. victories in the history of the Cold War: the withdrawal of 100,000 demoralized Soviet troops from Afghanistan, marking the first time that the on Adolescent Abortions, Red Army had withdrawn under fire from a nation it had occupied since World War II. The Afghan socialist revolution, it seemed, had failed. At the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Director William Webster and his euphoric Afghan Team toasted ten years of effort and a multi-billion dollar project to support the anti-communist, Muslim Afghan rebels, in what had become the CIA?s largest and most successful covert operation ever. On Capitol Hill, Congressman Charles Wilson (D-Texas), a legislative champion of the anti-Soviet guerrillas, boasted that the United States had learned in Afghanistan that it could reverse Soviet influence anywhere in the world. And at the White House, President George Bush hailed the withdrawal as a watershed in how did U.S.-Soviet relations. Six thousand miles away from the celebrations, however, the war in Afghanistan raged on. Washington and Moscow?s clients, using U.S. and Soviet-supplied weapons, continued their internecine struggle for power, adding more civilian casualties to the 1 million who had already died. Hegel's In Human Essay? Although peace had broken out between the superpowers, the how did the triangle fire, legacy of their long and bitter rivalry lived on lab report, in the rocket-prone city of Kabul, Pakistan?s crowded refugee camps and fire the war-ravaged villages in the Hindu Kush mountains. The Relevance of Afghanistan. How is Contradiction Essay, it that this underdeveloped, tribal-based country, tucked deep inside the rugged crossroads of Asia and deemed strategically insignificant by the United States for decades, became a battleground for the bloodiest superpower proxy war of the 1980s? What stimulated the United States to develop a sophisticated insurgency support operation for a rebellion led by Islamic religious leaders and fought by mountain tribesmen?

What was the nature of the debate among U.S. How Did The Triangle Fire? officials and congressmen as to what the rebels, beset with ethnic, tribal and personal rivalries, could accomplish against the armed forces of the Soviet Union? What effect did this war have on Pakistan, the most important U.S. ally in South Asia, which played a crucial role in the war by providing sanctuary for the rebels and 3 million Afghan refugees? And what lessons have the U.S. intelligence and defense communities drawn from the Afghan conflict and applied to the emerging U.S. strategic doctrine of Low-Intensity Warfare? Why did the Soviet Union spend ten years, billions of dollars and 15-20,000 lives trying to prop up a government that seemed constantly on Contemporary ERP Based Online Banking, the verge of collapse? Was Moscow?s intervention, as some have claimed, originally part of a grand design to seize oil fields and warm water ports in the Persian Gulf region, or merely a move to protect a new socialist government in a country contiguous to its sensitive southern border? Why did Mikhail Gorbachev eventually call the Red Army home, leaving the Afghan government to fend for the triangle, itself against Different Essay, formidable odds? And how did the Afghan government manage to hold onto power without Soviet protection? No student, professor or journalist trying to answer these and the many other questions related to how did shirtwaist, the Afghan war can do justice to their research without reviewing some of the lab report samples, thousands of pages of State Department cables from Kabul, Peshawar, Islamabad and Washington; intelligence reports from the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA); correspondence between Congress and the executive branch; field reports from how did shirtwaist start, Agency for International Development (AID) officials in Pakistan; and other previously classified materials found in this document set. An overview of Contemporary U.S. policy during Afghanistan?s last 17 turbulent years both provides some context for approaching these questions and demonstrates the usefulness of these materials to those trying to answer them. The Tenets of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan.

Although Afghanistan experienced massive changes between 1973 and 1990--four coups, the intervention and withdrawal of the how did the triangle shirtwaist fire start, Soviet armed forces, the exile of one-third of its population as a result of the war, and one million deaths?U.S. policy toward Afghanistan throughout this period actually remained the accident, same: to prevent excessive Soviet influence. Specifically, this meant denying the Soviet Union a foothold in Afghanistan from which to launch aggressive actions in the region. The Triangle Shirtwaist? Afghanistan by itself was of what description accident little importance to the United States. But the area around it?the Persian Gulf and the sea lines and ports of the Indian Ocean?was deemed critical, and U.S. policy toward Afghanistan consistently reflected a regional policy that sought strong and shirtwaist fire friendly ties with Iran and Pakistan. Hence, the two factors shaping U.S. policy in Afghanistan also remained consistent: the U.S. perception of Soviet goals in Afghanistan, and the balance of power in Hegel's in Human Essay the region. Until the fall of the Shah of Iran in 1979, the United States was able to project its power into South Asia and protect its interests there with confidence.

In exchange for massive military assistance, the Shah provided the United States with access to military bases and intelligence facilities, helping to safeguard the how did fire start, flow of Different Abortions Essay oil from the Persian Gulf to the free world while preventing potential Soviet advances toward the Gulf or Indian Ocean. At the same time, Soviet relations with Afghanistan did not appear to threaten U.S. interests. Since the USSR shared a long border with Afghanistan and because the United States enjoyed friendly ties with the other states in the region, U.S. officials viewed Soviet policy in Afghanistan as part of a defensive strategy. A National Intelligence Estimate written in 1954--one year after the United States helped restore the Shah to his throne in Iran?stated that Soviet attention to fire, Afghanistan is part of a general effort to counter recent Western (particularly US) gains in the Middle East-South Asia area.(2) Washington decided, in other words, to treat Afghanistan as a buffer state. Throughout the 1960s and the 1970s, relations between Moscow and Kabul grew stronger, as the USSR became one of Afghanistan?s largest sources of foreign aid.

The United States, while working to minimize Soviet influence, raised few objections. In 1962, the State Department reasoned that US fostering of is lepers description of the active hostility toward the USSR [could] only how did the triangle start serve to what is lepers accident, weaken Afghanistan?s ability to survive.(3) In 1976, the annual State Department Policy Review stated that Afghanistan was a militarily and politically neutral nation, effectively dependent on the Soviet Union. The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Start? Still, it concluded that the United States is is lepers, not, nor should it become, committed to, or responsible for how did, the ?protection? of Afghanistan in any respect.(4) The balance of power in the region favored the United States, and no significant Soviet threat to that balance was seen emanating from Afghanistan. This set of circumstances?which in U.S. policy parlance is described as regional stability?changed dramatically in 1979. The Shah of Different on Adolescent Essay Iran abdicated his throne in January, allowing an anti-American, Islamic government to the triangle shirtwaist start, take power. Ten months later, the Soviet Union deployed 100,000 troops to Afghanistan, putting the Red Army within striking distance of is lepers description both Pakistan and a potentially vulnerable Iran. The balance in how did the triangle shirtwaist the region had shifted. On Adolescent Essay? Soviet policy in Afghanistan, which was previously perceived as benign, was suddenly described by the triangle start the White House as the gravest threat to world peace since World War II.

The Early Years: 1973-1978. To gain a full understanding of these changes, one needs to go back to the early 1970s when the power of Essay Afghanistan?s monarchy was waning. Afghanistan at this time was one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. The Triangle Shirtwaist Start? In 1974, the World Bank estimated Afghanistan?s per capita GNP to be $70, ranking it 73rd among a list of 83 underdeveloped countries.(5) To make matters worse, Afghanistan suffered a terrible drought in 1971-1972. Foreign aid, from such countries as West Germany, Iran, the United States, and especially from the USSR, helped alleviate the country?s economic woes. Foreign aid alone, however, could not resolve Afghanistan?s emerging political conflicts. Many Afghans, particularly the progressive urban elite, had grown impatient with the country?s leader, King Zahir Shah. Abortions Essay? The king had ruled Afghanistan (sometimes as only a titular head) since the age of 19, when his father was assassinated in 1933. The United States was aware that political discontent was on the rise in the country. In 1971, the U.S. Embassy in Kabul reported that [t]here has been increased leftist activity which can be attributed to shirtwaist fire, increased disillusionment and frustration with the existing social/economic conditions and the apparent inability or unwillingness of the leadership to tackle boldly the nation?s problems.(6) Perhaps the most disgruntled and organized of the country?s leftist groups was the People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).

The PDPA had been founded in 1965 by a group of 30 Afghans in Kabul. Its political orientation was Marxist, with many of its members looking to Moscow for description accident, guidance and inspiration. Many PDPA members, in fact, had studied or received military training in how did the USSR. During its early years, the PDPA was torn by quarrels and what is lepers description plots between its two leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Babrak Karmal. The two leaders agreed on the triangle shirtwaist fire, the basic objectives of the party, including a number of socialist political and economic reforms. They both also complained of Afghanistan?s backward nature, pointing not only to its underdeveloped infrastructure but also to a maldistribution of wealth and land which, they claimed, was perpetuated by traditional tribal and religious customs.

Taraki and Karmal disagreed, however, over how to remedy these problems. Taraki and his followers argued for radical socialist reforms using whatever means necessary to implement them; Karmal and his supporters advocated the samples, gradual introduction of socialist change, working within the state system, incorporating along the way different elements of Afghan society. How Did Shirtwaist Fire Start? Karmal and several colleagues had even served as parliamentary members during the king?s rule, earning themselves the nickname royal communists. In 1967, Karmal split with the party and No Artist formed his own faction, also called the fire, PDPA, but usually identified by the name of its newspaper, Parcham (banner). Parcham continued to strive for the same kinds of process socialist reforms pursued by the triangle Taraki?s rival PDPA faction, Khalq (masses), also named for its newspaper, but the what is lepers of the, two competed for power nevertheless. By the early 1970s, Karmal had all but abandoned his non-confrontational, almost cooperative approach toward the government. The Zahir Administration had shut down the how did fire, Parcham newspaper, quashed Parcham demonstrations, and is lepers description arrested party members and shirtwaist fire put them in jail. In response, Karmal increasingly sang the same anti-monarchy tune as the Different, Khalqis. Parcham and Khalq were not the only groups opposed to the Zahir Shah Administration. The king?s cousin and former prime minister, Mohammad Daud, had his eyes on the royal palace, as did several other former officials and relatives of the king.

Realizing that a race was on to replace Zahir Shah, Daud, along with members of the military and Parcham, coordinated a takeover attempt. How Did The Triangle Fire Start? On July 17, 1973, while the king was vacationing in Italy, Daud, along with key military officers and the minister of criminal investigation process interior, who was a Parcham sympathizer, launched a successful, nearly bloodless coup, declaring an end to the monarchy and how did the triangle fire start the beginning of a republican government. The exact nature of Daud?s relations with Parcham during this time is still not clear. Did the two agree on political objectives for Afghanistan, or did they merely create a marriage of convenience? In any event, after ousting the royal family, Daud initiated some of the progressive reforms which his leftist supporters had demanded. His commitment to a reformist program and to his early backers was shortlived, however. Over time, Daud consolidated his personal power by purging the No Artist, government of leftists, replacing them with members of his own powerful Mohammadzai clan. He also sought more economic independence from the Soviet Union by exploring closer ties with Iran and the United States. He was careful, however, never completely to shun the Soviet Union. As the CIA noted, Daud was happiest when he could light his American cigarettes with Soviet matches.(7) The U.S.

Embassy in Kabul observed that Daud, in his changes, was leaning neither left nor right, but Daudward. In pursuit of personal power and a more independent foreign policy, Daud managed to alienate Afghanistan?s socialists, moderates and religious fundamentalists. It was the latter which initially proved to be Daud?s most militant opponents. While some Afghans were being influenced by Marxism, others were diligently studying the Koran. Many of these Afghans entered Kabul University?s faculty of Islamic law, while others pursued their Islamic studies in shirtwaist Egypt where they came into on Adolescent Abortions Essay contact with and were influenced by the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization which seeks the imposition of strictly Islamic governments in all Muslim countries.

Some of those Afghans who studied in Cairo, such as Burhanuddin Rabbani, Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, came back to Kabul determined to how did the triangle shirtwaist start, galvanize opposition first to Zahir Shah and then Mohammad Daud, both of whose governments they criticized as corrupt and un-Islamic. This group of Afghans wanted to integrate modernization and Islam to counter the samples, disruptive influence of both capitalism and communism. Rabbani recruited from Afghanistan?s Muslim Youth Organization and helped form the Islamic Society party, Jamiat-i Islami. The Triangle Fire Start? Jamiat organized anti-government protests and other Islamic dissident activities. When Daud cracked down on Jamiat activists, Rabbani and other Muslim leaders fled for the Afghan countryside and eventually to Contemporary Essay, Pakistan where they received arms to fight the Daud government. U.S. officials knew very little about these Afghan rebels and doubted they could pose a serious threat to the Daud Administration. Some of the names listed in State Department cables were those of people who, years later, would receive covert aid from the United States in their jihad, or holy war, against the Soviet Union. But it was Pakistan, which had its own reasons to fear Daud, that helped these rebels get their start.

Especially alarming to how did start, the Pakistanis was Daud?s pursuit of a popular cause called Pashtunistan. Roughly half of Afghanistan?s population are ethnic Pashtuns, including Daud and practically every other leader in Afghanistan?s history. Millions of Pashtuns also lived on the other side of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, an artificial line drawn by the British during the height of their colonial rule in Essay India. How Did Shirtwaist Fire? These Pashtuns, living in Pakistan?s Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), looked forward to the day when they would join their ethnic brethren in controlling their own homeland, Pashtunistan. Since Pashtuns dominated Afghan politics, they could only gain from of the accident, pursuing such a goal, and how did the triangle fire Afghan leaders, in turn, won favor among Afghan Pashtuns for Different Views Abortions, pursuing it. What was appealing to fire, Daud and other Afghan leaders, however, represented a real threat to Pakistan. Contemporary? Pashtunistan, if ever realized, would cut deeply into the NWFP by annexing a good portion of Pakistan. How Did The Triangle Start? Even if the Views on Adolescent, border with Afghanistan remained intact, calls in Kabul for Pashtunistan always had the potential for stirring unrest in Peshawar and other parts of Pakistan?s frontier. Expatriate leaders such as Rabbani, an ethnic Tajik, and Hekmatyar, an how did start, Islamist who sought to lab report samples, unite Afghans belonging to all ethnic groups through Islam, provided Pakistan with a minor tool for keeping Daud off balance if he chose to pursue an aggressive Pashtunistan policy. Meanwhile, as Islamic fundamentalists rebelled against Daud?s atheistic reforms, Daud continued to the triangle shirtwaist fire start, purge more leftists from the criminal process, government, banned political opposition in 1975, and strengthened ties with Iran and how did shirtwaist fire start the United States. The United States welcomed and encouraged Daud?s new foreign policy moves.

In 1977, the State Department, remarking on Daud?s closer ties to Iran, stated that he had made significant contributions to what is lepers description of the, the improvement of regional stability?thereby helping to fulfill another principal U.S. Start? objective.(8) The Saur Revolution. Despite U.S. Contemporary Online Essay? approval, Daud?s authoritarian rule had alienated too many at home. In particular, PDPA members, Parchamis and Khalqis alike, had grown impatient with Daud and were anxious to see him removed from power. Khalq members criticized their Parcham rivals for having deluded themselves into the triangle shirtwaist fire start thinking that the PDPA could have worked with Daud after supporting his takeover. By 1977, Khalq and Parcham formally agreed to bury their differences and united to form one People?s Democratic Party of Hegel's Essay Afghanistan; Soviet pressure reportedly played a role in fire the unification. Further PDPA infiltration of the military, especially by Khalqis, put the party in a good position to influence events if and when Daud lost his grip on power. That day came on April 17, 1978, when Mir Akbar Khaibar, a member of the lab report samples, PDPA and a vocal critic of Daud, was assassinated, possibly by Daud?s minister of interior.

Thousands of mourners turned Khaibar?s funeral into the triangle fire start an anti-government rally which prompted Daud to clamp down further on the PDPA, arresting numerous party members. Different On Adolescent Abortions? His response provoked PDPA supporters in the military to take action. On April 27, the military in collaboration with the the triangle fire, PDPA overthrew Daud, executed him, and replaced his republican government with a socialist one, which proclaimed the coup as the beginning of the Saur [April] Revolution. Prelude to Intervention. The socialist and pro-Soviet bent of the new government caused U.S. Process? officials some concern as they wondered whether Moscow had played a secret role in the PDPA takeover. The Triangle Shirtwaist? U.S. Embassy officials in Kabul, however, detected no Soviet hand in Contemporary Online Banking the coup and suggested a cautious approach to the new government. These officials recalled that while Daud had been busy consolidating his personal power and pursuing new foreign ties, he had neglected the domestic reforms that many Afghans, particularly the progressive intellectuals, had demanded.

Also, religious leaders and intellectual, or Islamists, including those who had already taken up arms against Daud, had been neglected or repressed. The PDPA was in a better position than the Islamicists to how did the triangle shirtwaist fire, seize power because of its stronger influence over criminal the military and within the capital city, Kabul. The Khalq-Parcham unity was apparently not very solid. The new government, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), was dominated by Khalqis, due mostly to Khalq control of the military. Fire? Soon after the April takeover, Khalq?s two main leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin, quickly consolidated Khalq rule by imprisoning a number of their Parcham rivals while sending others off to foreign diplomatic posts.

Meanwhile, they moved quickly to implement radical secular reforms, ranging from marriage decrees to land reform laws. A treaty of friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union was signed in December 1978, which brought more Soviet aid and advisors to Kabul. The Khalqi reforms served to Different Views, ignite strong opposition from the triangle shirtwaist fire start, most of the deeply traditional and Islamic population. The security of rural women, for in Human History Essay, example, often depended on a sizable dowry, which was significantly reduced under new marriage laws. The land reforms, which were meant to how did start, help small farmers, were opposed by No Artist Behind many for having alienated them from their former landowners, on whom they had always relied for help in growing and selling their crops. A number of disenfranchised landowners along with many religious leaders either took up arms against the Taraki-Amin government or left the country. Some Afghans fled to shirtwaist fire start, Pakistan to join the Islamic Afghan dissidents such as Rabbani and Hekmatyar. Some of the more prominent new rebels included: Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, who came from a well-known family of Hegel's Contradiction History Essay Sufi leaders, had ties to the royal family, was related to a prominent PDPA official (a valuable connection for most rebels), and start formerly taught Islamic law in Kabul; Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, who was also tied to the royal family, was a Pir, or spiritual leader, and who until his departure from Kabul owned a Peugeot car dealership; Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi, who came from a prominent religious family and served in parliament in the 1960s where he criticized secular influence in Afghanistan, physically attacking, at one point, another member of parliament, Babrak Karmal.

There were other rebel leaders operating in the Afghan mountains or out of Pakistan. An important one, Yunus Khales had escaped from Afghanistan in Hegel's Contradiction History Essay 1974 after writing a book that criticized the Daud Administration. Unlike some other rebel leaders, Khales depended more on his genuine tribal support than his religious aura to galvanize Afghans in his home province of Nangarhar to oppose the how did fire start, new government in Kabul. These leaders, along with Rabbani, Hekmatyar, and Contemporary Online Essay another who joined in how did the triangle shirtwaist start 1980, Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, formed their own parties and would eventually unite to Different on Adolescent, form the the triangle shirtwaist, Sunni Islamic Afghan rebel alliance, or the Peshawar Seven as they would later become collectively known as. These party leaders called for a jihad, or holy war, against the PDPA. Many other Afghan dissidents helped lead the charge against the Kabul government, including numerous commanders in the Afghan mountains, like Ahmad Shah Masoud. The Shiite Afghans also played an important insurgency role in the western half of investigation process Afghanistan. Some of the Shiite parties based their operations in how did the triangle fire Iran where they received support from Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?s government. It was the Peshawar Seven, however, who would grab the world?s attention, partly because the government of Pakistan, the host to most rebels and refugees and of the the foreign journalists writing about them, chose to recognize their parties as the only legitimate ones in Pakistan. The United States, in the meantime, had found itself facing a policy dilemma with the the triangle, PDPA?s ascension to power in Afghanistan.

This dilemma was summed up in a secret memorandum to Secretary of State Cyrus Vance following the April takeover: We need to take into account the lab report samples, mix of nationalism and how did communism in what is lepers the new leadership and seek to avoid driving the regime into a closer embrace with the the triangle, Soviet Union than it might wish. Yet the memo also pointed out various factors favoring a hard-line approach to the new government: [A]nti-regime elements in Afghanistan will be watching us carefully to see if we acquiesce in or accept the communist takeover. Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and others of Different Views on Adolescent Abortions our friends in the area will see the situation clearly as a Soviet coup. On the domestic front, many Americans will see this as an extension of Soviet power and draw the parallel with Angola, Ethiopia, etc.(9) As a result, the United States compromised, maintaining correct relations with the fire start, government while keeping channels open to the opposition. As dissatisfaction with the PDPA mounted within Afghanistan, however, the United States grew increasingly uncomfortable with the new government and Behind its radical reforms. To make matters worse, in February 1979, the how did the triangle start, U.S. Criminal Investigation Process? ambassador, Adolph Dubs, was taken hostage by anti-government Shiite Muslims who demanded the release of the triangle shirtwaist a political prisoner. Afghan police clumsily stormed their hideout, and Dubs was killed in Contemporary Banking the ensuing shootout. Afghan authorities stonewalled U.S. How Did Start? requests for an independent investigation of the killing. Is Lepers Of The Accident? Congress in turn refused to replace Dubs with another ambassador and how did start threatened to cut aid to the DRA.

In March 1979, Afghans in the western city of Herat responded to rebel calls for a jihad by massacring hundreds of DRA officials and Soviet advisors who were in charge of introducing the women?s literacy program there. Afghanistan was beginning to draw attention from the outside world, including Washington. Left Essay? At the how did the triangle fire start, White House, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski warned President Carter that the Soviet Union, with its hundreds of Essay advisors in Afghanistan to assist in reforms and shirtwaist counterinsurgency operations, had territorial designs on Afghanistan and possibly the whole South Asia region. Brzezinski and others worried that the lab report, USSR might take advantage of its presence in Afghanistan in order to influence events in neighboring Iran or Pakistan, two traditionally pro-American countries that for years had helped safeguard U.S. interests in the region, namely access to oil and the containment of the Soviet Union. If the DRA were able to consolidate its power, Brzezinski argued, then the Soviet Union might turn Afghanistan into a launching pad for aggression in the region. How Did The Triangle Shirtwaist? Weeks after the Herat uprising and while President Carter was absorbed by the Iran hostage crisis, Brzezinski pushed a decision through the Special Coordination Committee (SCC) of the what is lepers of the accident, National Security Council (NSC) to be, as he put it, more sympathetic to those Afghans who were determined to preserve their country?s independence.(10) Although deliberately vague as to what this meant, the evidence indicates that Brzezinski called for the triangle start, moderate covert support for Afghan dissident groups which had set up headquarters in samples Pakistan. Some, such as forces under the command of Rabbani and Hekmatyar, had been operating out of Pakistan without much outside aid for years. According to a former Pakistani military official who was interviewed in how did the triangle fire start 1988, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad had asked Pakistani military officials in Online Banking April 1979 to recommend a rebel organization that would make the best use of U.S. How Did The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire? aid. Criminal Process? The following month, the Pakistani source claimed, he personally introduced a CIA official to Hekmatyar who, while more radically Islamic and anti-American than most Afghans, headed what the Pakistani government considered the how did the triangle shirtwaist fire start, most militant and organized rebel group, the Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar).(11)

Freedom of Information Act requests for No Artist Behind Essay, records describing these meetings have been denied. But CIA and State Department documents seized by Iranian students during the takeover of the U.S. Embassy in Tehran in November 1979, reveal that, starting in April 1979, eight months before the Soviet intervention and immediately following Brzezinski?s SCC decision, the United States had, in fact, begun quietly meeting rebel representatives. Although most of the cables and memoranda released to date show that U.S. officials politely turned down rebel requests for the triangle start, U.S. assistance, others reveal CIA support for anti-DRA demonstrations and close monitoring of Pakistani military aid for rebel parties based in Pakistan?s NWFP. Brzezinski?s decision to help the rebels was curious in light of Soviet activities in Afghanistan at Behind Essay, the time.

According to shirtwaist, declassified documents and this author?s interviews, Soviet officials thought the Views Abortions Essay, Khalqi leadership was moving too fast with its reforms and urged Taraki and Amin to moderate the pace of change and the triangle fire broaden their political base by including non-communists in the government. This approach, however, was more amenable to Parcham leaders who, unfortunately for Soviet officials, were not in power. When Khalq leaders sidestepped Soviet advice, Moscow sought other means to induce political change, meeting with former members of the monarchy and other non-communists to seek their participation in the DRA government. Soviet and other East bloc diplomats in Kabul kept the U.S. Embassy informed of their efforts. The ruling Khalqis, particularly Hafizullah Amin, had little use for Soviet counsel. The government responded to the growing opposition with increasing brutality, and the PDPA?s base continued to narrow. Amin, who as the defense minister was in charge of the failed counterinsurgency operations, became the focus of Soviet frustrations.

State Department intelligence learned that, in August 1979, Moscow had decided there was no practical alternative in Afghanistan to the rule of Taraki and Amin but that Soviet officials had resolved to support the more moderate Taraki against Amin. In the same month, a high-ranking Soviet military official, General Ivan Pavlovskiy, led a fact-finding mission to Afghanistan to assess the stability of the Different, government. Start? In September, Taraki, on his way home from a Nonaligned Movement conference in criminal Cuba, stopped in Moscow where he and Soviet officials reportedly discussed Amin?s future. Amin, perhaps sensing a coup, had Taraki arrested upon the triangle shirtwaist start his return and executed him soon after. In October, General Pavlovskiy returned to Moscow and presented the Politburo with a grim picture of the lab report, situation below their border.

The Khalqi government had lost control of 23 of Afghanistan?s 28 provinces to various rebel forces. Left with Amin, the Soviets drew up plans for military action. By late November 1979, Soviet forces were moved to the Soviet Union-Afghanistan border. Warsaw Pact forces were also placed on an advanced state of readiness. Two Soviet battalions were quietly flown into an airbase near Kabul during the first week of shirtwaist start December, laying the lab report, groundwork for what was to follow. On Christmas Eve 1979, tens of thousands of Soviet troops riding in tanks and armored personnel carriers stormed across the Amudarya River into the rugged Afghan countryside, while thousands more flew into the Kabul, Bagram and Shindand air bases, bringing with them exiled Parcham leaders, including Babrak Karmal, who had been hiding in Moscow. The Triangle Start? Within days, Hafizullah Amin was assassinated and replaced by Karmal who formed a new Parcham-led government. Superpowers and Doctrines of Hegemony. The Soviet invasion symbolized, ironically, the criminal, limits of Soviet influence in Afghanistan. Unable to stabilize the government through political means, Moscow attempted to do so with military force, much the same as the fire, United States had done years before in Vietnam. To many observers in Washington, D.C., however, Afghanistan was beginning to look like another pawn on Different on Adolescent Abortions Essay, the Kremlin?s chessboard.

The invasion coincided with the decline of U.S. influence in Iran and other Third World countries such as Angola and Mozambique in 1975, Ethiopia in 1977 and Nicaragua in 1979 where pro-Soviet governments had seized power. The Triangle? It also coincided with an election year in which President Carter was coming under attack from conservatives for failing to prevent these Soviet gains. Many of Contemporary ERP Based Essay these U.S. observers argued that the global balance of power, particularly the how did the triangle shirtwaist, geostrategic balance in South Asia, had shifted in favor of the Soviet Union. The new dominant U.S. perception of Soviet foreign policy, as evidenced by Afghanistan, was that it was expansionist in nature: the Brezhnev Doctrine of criminal investigation process protecting socialist allies, U.S. conservatives claimed, had been logically extended to include expanding Soviet influence beyond the how did the triangle shirtwaist start, Warsaw Pact. This view was best summed up in a Defense Intelligence Agency report issued days after Soviet troops entered Afghanistan: The key motivation that propelled Moscow?s move was to bring its long-standing strategic goals closer within reach.

Control of Afghanistan would be a major step toward overland access to the Indian Ocean and to No Artist, domination of the Asian sub-continent.(12) Reasoning that aggression unopposed becomes a contagious disease, President Carter warned the the triangle, Soviet Union on January 23rd, 1980, that [a]n attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region [would] be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the No Artist Essay, U.S. and [would] be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.(13) Journalists labeled this powerful warning the how did the triangle start, Carter Doctrine. Hegel's In Human History? Since, however, the United States was neither interested in how did shirtwaist fire start nor prepared for a war with the Soviet Union in Afghanistan or the Persian Gulf, Carter looked for alternative ways to slow down a potential Soviet drive and in Human Essay make Moscow pay a heavy price for its intervention. He called for international economic sanctions against the USSR and a boycott of the how did shirtwaist fire, Olympic games being held in lab report samples Moscow, sought military access agreements with several South and Southwest Asian countries, and provided more covert aid to the mujahidin. Not all U.S. officials believed that the Soviet intervention was part of an expansionist drive. While no declassified documents reveal any criticism of rebel military aid, some officials subsequently recalled in this author?s interviews that they had advocated quiet diplomacy with the Soviet Union in order to how did the triangle shirtwaist, provide the Kremlin with a way out of what of the accident what they believed was a political and how did the triangle shirtwaist military miscalculation.(14) Moscow had its own critics as well. According to interviews with Soviet officials, days after the intervention, Soviet foreign affairs advisors pleaded with the Kremlin leadership to withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. These advisors did not believe the intervention was worth ruining d?tente with the United States, Europe and China.

What is more, the lab report, deeply traditional and Islamic Afghans, in their opinion, were not yet prepared for socialism.(15) Cold War attitudes, however, prevailed in both Moscow and Washington. A combination of fear, pride and shirtwaist superpower obligations caused the investigation, leader of the free world and the vanguard of socialism to struggle violently over how did shirtwaist fire start a destitute country the size of Texas for the next ten years. Political vs. Military Solution. Carter?s reaction to the Soviet invasion received widespread approval among policy-makers. Hard-liners, including Carter?s opponent in the 1980 presidential elections, Ronald Reagan, had warned numerous times that the Soviet Union was on a roll in the Third World and had to be rolled back. Moderates thought the intervention, regardless of its purpose, was an egregious act for which the USSR should pay a price. All agreed that the Soviet Union should withdraw from Afghanistan. The question was how to convince Moscow. Congressional conservatives opposed negotiations, distrusting the Soviet Union?s willingness to negotiate in Contradiction in Human History Essay good faith. The Triangle Shirtwaist Start? According to their view, the USSR would not withdraw unless and until it felt the Different on Adolescent Abortions, costs of its occupation.

Most U.S. moderates and liberals fell into line with their conservative colleagues, supporting covert aid to the Afghan rebels, with virtually no one advocating diplomacy as a means of resolving the conflict. The State Department believed that the rebels could probably continue tying up some 85,000 or more Soviet troops but that they were fragmented, lack[ed] effective national leadership, and certainly [could not] force a Soviet withdrawal.(16) After minimal deliberation at the White House, Carter opted for a two-track approach, supporting moderate levels of covert aid while seeking a forum for a negotiated settlement. Carter?s loss to the triangle shirtwaist, Reagan in the 1980 presidential election signalled the end of the negotiation track. The new president favored a distinctly hard-line policy toward Afghanistan. Reagan sought to make the Afghan rebels and other anti-communist insurgencies the centerpiece of the Reagan Doctrine, an aggressive initiative designed to increase the cost of on Adolescent Essay Soviet support for Third World socialist governments. While few believed that the Afghan rebels could force a Soviet withdrawal, Reagan and his advisors hoped to tie Soviet troops down in how did shirtwaist fire start Afghanistan?s Hindu Kush mountains until the cost of occupation became unsustainable. The key to Essay, this objective was Pakistan. Since the how did start, overthrow of Mohammad Daud, Pakistan had played host to thousands (and eventually millions) of criminal investigation Afghan refugees and rebels who had fled their war-torn country for the triangle fire, make-shift tent villages in the Northwest Frontier Province and Contemporary ERP Based Banking Essay Baluchistan. Without the cooperation of Pakistan?s military government, led since 1977 by Gen. Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq, the shirtwaist, rebels would have had no sanctuary from which to launch their operations. The Carter Administration had cut aid to Pakistan in 1977 because of Online Banking Essay concerns about its nuclear program and General Zia?s disdain for human rights and democracy.

There was ample evidence to fire, suggest that Pakistan was actively developing an atomic bomb. In addition, the Carter White House, with its public emphasis on respect for Different Abortions Essay, human rights as a precondition for foreign aid, was forced to how did the triangle shirtwaist start, respond to Zia?s well-known history of brutal and dictatorial actions. The general had originally attained power by overthrowing Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Is Lepers? After promising elections within 90 days of the takeover, Zia postponed them indefinitely and eventually had Bhutto executed. To the United States, however, Zia?s record of how did the triangle human rights abuses paled in significance when compared to the Soviet move into Afghanistan. Contradiction History? Literally days after the how did the triangle fire, Soviet invasion, Carter was on the telephone with Zia offering him hundreds of millions of dollars in economic and military aid in exchange for No Artist, cooperation in helping the shirtwaist fire start, rebels. Zia accepted this quid pro quo, but his government remained wary of Different Views on Adolescent Essay Washington?s stated commitment to protect Pakistan from how did the triangle shirtwaist start, possible Soviet strikes across its border. The Reagan Administration was able to gain Pakistan?s confidence by offering a huge, six-year economic and military aid package which elevated Pakistan to the third largest recipient of U.S. foreign aid. The Reagan White House had equal success in persuading Congress to accept Zia as a new ally.

The conservative, Islamic general who was still pursuing a nuclear weapons program and description of the seemed uninterested in ever holding elections was now a fellow freedom fighter boldly in charge of how did the triangle start a front-line state. Although Zia spoke in concert with U.S. objectives of supporting Afghan self-determination and opposing the Afghan puppet government, he and his military had their own agenda in Afghanistan. Views On Adolescent Abortions Essay? Zia chose to favor the more radically Islamic rebel groups who, in some cases, were no more popular or representative than the shirtwaist, PDPA. What Accident? He was able to divert a disproportionately large share of U.S.-supplied weapons to how did the triangle shirtwaist fire start, these groups, especially the most radical one, Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar). Later in the war, this would cause significant problems for the rebel movement. Whether the United States blindly yielded to Zia?s favoritism of the fundamentalists or was in connivance with it is still in question.

The relationship between the CIA and Pakistan?s Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), the arm of the military responsible for distributing CIA-purchased weapons to Different Views on Adolescent Abortions, the rebels, is not well-documented. The Triangle Fire Start? This author?s interviews with Pakistani officials indicate that U.S. officials in Pakistan were continually advised by ISI officials that Hekmatyar?s Hizb-i Islami was the most effective rebel organization, although some officials from Pakistan?s Foreign Ministry apparently differed with that assessment. Many secular Pakistanis outside of the government worried that foreign aid for Afghan fundamentalists such as Hekmatyar also served to Contemporary Essay, bolster the conservative Islamic forces in Pakistan, including the military. Available documents and how did the triangle shirtwaist fire chronology show that during the ten-year Soviet occupation of of the Afghanistan, U.S. How Did Shirtwaist Fire Start? officials developed a stronger relationship with Pakistan?s generals than with either the foreign ministry or the civilian opposition. Congress and Covert Aid.

Afghanistan presents a unique case of congressional involvement with a covert aid program. Whereas a divided Congress often impeded the Reagan Administration?s efforts to aid the contras in Nicaragua, congressional hard-liners, riding a wave of bipartisan support, consistently and lab report successfully pushed for more covert funding for the Afghan rebels than the White House ever requested. Hence, the debate regarding Afghan aid was relatively narrow in scope although not without tension. How Did Shirtwaist Fire? While everyone seemed to support Afghan self-determination and a Soviet-free Afghanistan, several members of Congress, backed by conservative lobbying groups, criticized the Contemporary Online Banking Essay, administration for not pursuing vigorously enough a mujahidin military victory over how did the triangle shirtwaist start the PDPA. It was the CIA, ironically, that cautioned against too much covert aid for the rebels. Officials from CIA headquarters in Behind Langley, Virginia, including Deputy Director John McMahon, warned Congress that too large a military support operation for how did the triangle, the rebels might provoke Soviet retaliation against Pakistan and would certainly be subject to leakages and corruption. The CIA was especially resistant to calls for Different Abortions, providing the mujahidin with U.S.-made weaponry. Traditionally, the Agency purchased foreign, usually Soviet-styled, weaponry in how did the triangle shirtwaist fire order to plausibly deny U.S. Views On Adolescent? involvement if the the triangle shirtwaist start, need arose. Throughout the Afghan war, the Left Behind, CIA purchased Soviet-designed weapons from Egypt, China and elsewhere and transported them to Pakistan. Cables reveal that Chinese and Egyptian AK-47 rifles and SA-7 anti-aircraft missiles arrived in Pakistan as early as 1980.

This covert purchasing process not only covered U.S. How Did Shirtwaist Start? tracks, but ensured the availability of weapons that were compatible with the No Artist Behind Essay, kind captured by the rebels from their Soviet-supplied enemies. In 1984, Congress passed a resolution, introduced by Senator Paul Tsongas (D-Massachusetts) and Congressman Don Ritter (R-Pennsylvania), which called for effective U.S. material aid for the rebels in their fight for freedom from foreign domination. Several legislators, particularly Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-Texas) and Senator Gordon Humphrey (R-New Hampshire), tried to use the fire start, Tsongas-Ritter resolution to increase the size and quality of the Online, rebel covert aid program. While Washington and Moscow poured more weapons into Afghanistan, United Nations officials relentlessly pursued a diplomatic solution to end the war. In 1982, the U.N. Secretary-General, Javier P?rez de Cuellar tasked Diego Cordovez to the triangle shirtwaist fire start, find a way for the United Nations to what is lepers accident, mediate a political settlement in Afghanistan.

For the how did the triangle shirtwaist start, next six years, Cordovez shuttled back and forth from New York to South Asia to the Soviet Union and to Geneva. He tried to convince the numerous parties to the conflict?the Afghan government, the various rebel groups, the Soviet Union, Pakistan, the United States and criminal Iran?to narrow their differences so that they could agree on a set of principles or conditions under which the Soviet military would withdraw from Afghanistan. Cordovez and his U.N. colleagues brought Pakistani and Afghan government representatives to Geneva on numerous occasions to discuss conditions for a political settlement. Since Pakistan did not recognize the Afghan government as legitimate, Cordovez literally had to move back and forth between hotel rooms because Pakistani officials refused to sit at the same table with the DRA representatives. Compounding Cordovez?s difficulties was a strong sense of mistrust between the superpowers. On a number of how did shirtwaist occasions it appeared that Pakistan and Afghanistan were ready to sign an agreement that would prohibit Pakistan from allowing material aid for the rebels to pass through its territory in exchange for a Soviet withdrawal. One or both sides, however, would consistently pull out at the last minute, raising suspicions that either Washington or Moscow was unsatisfied with the timing or conditions of the accord. To most U.S. officials, these U.N.-sponsored proximity talks looked hopeless or even frightening. In March 1983, Under Secretary of Different Abortions Essay State for how did shirtwaist, Political Affairs Lawrence Eagleburger reportedly expressed alarm at the prospect that the following round of Geneva negotiations might result in Left Behind a settlement.

About the same time, Charles Cogan, then the CIA?s official in how did the triangle shirtwaist start charge of covert operations in Afghanistan, told a journalist that Pakistan was not about to Online Essay, sign Cordovez?s proposed Geneva Accords at the next round or ever. He added that President Zia accepted the U.S. view that Pakistan?s security is best assured by keeping the how did the triangle shirtwaist start, Russians tied down [in Afghanistan].(17) On Capitol Hill, similar sentiments were voiced and more rebel aid was appropriated. Until the Soviet archives are open it will be impossible to determine how the U.S. Different On Adolescent Abortions? hard-line approach affected Soviet policy toward Afghanistan. Fire Start? Was Moscow supporting U.N. Criminal Investigation? efforts as a smokescreen for its strategy of subjugating the mujahidin, as Wilson, Humphrey and others argued? Or did increased U.S. aid for the rebels cause the USSR to dig in deeper, suspecting that the the triangle shirtwaist start, United States was not interested in lab report samples a political solution? Wilson and Humphrey eventually succeeded in galvanizing congressional backing for a stronger rebel military force in Afghanistan. Despite signs of corruption in both the military and humanitarian aid programs as early as 1982, Congress ultimately provided nearly $3 billion in covert aid for the mujahidin, more than all other CIA covert operations in the 1980s combined. How Did Fire Start? By 1987, the Contemporary Essay, United States was providing the rebels with nearly $700 million in military assistance a year, more than what Pakistan itself was receiving from Washington. In 1984, Wilson used his powerful position on the House Intelligence Committee to tack on how did the triangle start, an additional $50 million for Afghan covert aid and convinced the CIA to purchase high-quality, Swiss-designed Oerlikon anti-aircraft missiles, which could pierce the heavy armor of the USSR?s most formidable counterinsurgency machine, the investigation, Hind Mi-24 helicopter.

The CIA went even further in 1985, purchasing the sophisticated British-made Blowpipe anti-aircraft missiles. And in how did the triangle shirtwaist fire 1986, due to pressure from several congressmen and a number of bureaucrats at the State and Defense departments, the CIA provided the mujahidin with U.S.-made Stinger missiles, the Contemporary Online Banking Essay, most effective shoulder-held anti-aircraft weapon in the world. It was the first time the CIA had provided U.S.-made weaponry as part of a covert insurgency support operation, and the legislative branch was largely responsible. As a congressional staffer later put it: We finally broke the Agency?s virginity. Refugees and U.S. Policy.

The dislocation of 3 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan?one of the most tragic results of the war?was something Congress, the White House and the international community could all agree on: they needed massive assistance. How Did Start? Ultimately one-third of Afghanistan?s pre-war population fled the country, testifying to the destruction and chaos caused largely by heavy Soviet/Afghan government aerial bombing. For political as well as economic reasons, the United States urged other countries to contribute to the refugee cause. In 1981, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad asserted that if funding for the refugees were too visible, it would damage the credibility of the mujahidin by focusing attention on U.S. influence in the Afghan insurgency.(18) Dozens of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were willing to help the refugees and Hegel's Contradiction in Human rebels as long as they were provided with the the triangle shirtwaist, necessary resources to do so. The United States channeled a significant amount of aid through favored NGOs and Hegel's Contradiction in Human urged other countries to either aid the same organizations or to contribute to the United Nations High Commissioner for how did the triangle fire start, Refugees (UNHCR). In the end, no matter who distributed the aid, much of it ended up in the hands of rebel parties, providing them with significant political leverage over the millions of what of the Afghan exiles. In addition to the humanitarian grounds for providing aid to the refugees in Pakistan, the United States also sought to alleviate political and economic pressure on Islamabad and to help maintain a support structure for the rebels. In 1982, the CIA predicted that the presence of Afghan refugees in Pakistan would help generate political unrest and retard economic development until the end of the century.(19) While many Pakistanis demonstrated great hospitality and tolerance for the triangle fire start, the refugees, others despised their presence.

Cables from Pakistan reveal violent clashes between Pakistani border tribes and Afghan refugees over scarce resources and political, religious and in Human History Essay personal differences. Some disgruntled tribes even took weapons and the triangle shirtwaist money from the Afghan government to disrupt rebel supply lines into Afghanistan. In fact, the Afghan government?s infiltration of Pakistan and the rebel parties was extensive and proved key to its survival. The government?s ministry of state security, known as KHAD, sought to buy or rent the loyalty of Pashtun tribes who inhabited the Hegel's in Human, Afghanistan-Pakistan border area (the tribes often inhabited both sides of the border). Weapons and money were doled out to tribal militia who in turn interdicted rebel supply operations based in Pakistan. Some tribal leaders responded to how did shirtwaist, Kabul?s material aid with political support, attending government jirgahs (assemblies) and other PDPA-sponsored activities. President Zia tried to undercut the Pakistan-based tribes? support for the Afghan government by, among other means, conducting selective anti-narcotics sweeps through their home areas. Kabul?s strategy, however, continued to be successful, and ultimately contributed to the rise of criminal investigation Najibullah, the KHAD?s director and the man responsible for this counterinsurgency campaign, to the leader of the DRA in 1986. Other kinds of counterinsurgency operations, including Soviet/Afghan government aerial search-and-destroy missions, as well as insurgency tactics, such as the mujahidin?s hit-and-run attacks on government-held garrisons and cities, were some of the the triangle start, principal causes of the refugee flow into Pakistan. But it was the aerial bombing that inflicted the most damage. Congress, determined to counter what it called a Soviet depopulation campaign, called for an aggressive cross-border humanitarian aid program.

The Agency for Hegel's Contradiction History Essay, International Development (AID) was tasked with implementing this unorthodox program. The objective of AID?s Cross-border Humanitarian Assistance Program (CBHA) was to provide Afghans inside Afghanistan?civilians and shirtwaist rebels alike?with the means to survive without having to flee to Pakistan. The mass exodus of Afghans had been putting too much pressure on Pakistan, and lab report samples the empty Afghan villages left the how did the triangle, rebels with little material or moral support inside the country. AID funds went toward building hospitals and schools, growing crops, and putting money in the pockets of local residents. The AID reports are actually some of the richest documents in the collection, describing the situation inside the investigation process, normally inaccessible parts of war-torn Afghanistan and illustrating some of the the triangle shirtwaist fire, bizarre politics of the mujahidin. No Artist? As part of a pro-insurgency operation, the shirtwaist, program was unique and controversial. AID was being used to maintain and build up the rebels? infrastructure.

As one U.S. advisor explained to this author in Pakistan: We borrowed a lesson from Mao. The Soviets were trying to drain the sea to kill the fish [rebels], so we?re trying to keep the sea filled.(20) Public Diplomacy and the First Casualty of War. In addition to providing the rebels with military and humanitarian aid, the United States provided psychological support. In 1983, a unique National Security Decision Directive, number 77, was signed into lab report action to coordinate U.S. Fire Start? government agencies to enhance U.S. national security and counter anti-American propaganda through public diplomacy. U.S. officials had their work cut out for them in Afghanistan where media coverage was hindered by war and propaganda. To overcome these obstacles, the National Security Council, in keeping with NSDD 77, formed the inter-agency Afghan Working Group, which met twice a month to discuss ways of increasing media coverage of the war and lab report generating sympathy and how did start support for the mujahidin. News coverage of the war was indeed limited, especially when one considers that this was the longest war in Soviet history, the in Human History Essay, largest CIA paramilitary operation since Vietnam, and, with 1 million dead Afghans, the bloodiest regional conflict in the world at the time. Shirtwaist Fire Start? Nevertheless, no major American newspaper saw fit to station a reporter in Peshawar, Pakistan, the base of rebel political and military operations, and American television crews rarely ventured up to the Khyber Pass for lab report, a glimpse of the how did shirtwaist start, war.

A major reason for process, this, of course, was the risk involved in how did shirtwaist reporting a guerrilla war, especially this one. A journalist who wished to go inside faced a number of hazards ranging from contracting a serious disease to the chance of being killed in an air raid or ambush. What coverage there was tended to be biased toward the mujahidin. Several factors explain this. No Artist Left Behind Essay? Foreign correspondents and stringers who did go to Peshawar or managed to go inside with the rebels encountered thousands of uprooted Afghans who all had horrific stories to tell about losing homes and relatives to Soviet/Afghan government counterinsurgency operations. Indeed, craters from Soviet bombs marked the landscape, villages were often emptied of their inhabitants, and many Afghans who found their way to Pakistan walked the streets with artificial limbs, victims of how did fire start land mines. In addition, the Afghan government often proved to be an unreliable source of information, causing Western journalists to rely heavily on U.S. officials for details of the war.

The DRA in lab report samples 1980, for example, reported how Walter Cronkite (apparently confusing him with Dan Rather) on a visit into Afghanistan had ordered the execution of two Afghans?Islamic style. That same year the DRA expelled 18 Western journalists for the triangle shirtwaist fire, biased coverage. Contemporary Online? When the government allowed journalists to shirtwaist fire, return to the country in No Artist Essay 1986, the journalists discovered in Kabul another side to the story: victims of rebel land mines and indiscriminate mujahidin rocket attacks on the capital. Thus, for much of the war most reporters found it physically and journalistically safer to the triangle shirtwaist start, rely on Western diplomatic sources in Pakistan, the cover for U.S. officials at the Consulate in Peshawar or the Embassy in Islamabad. Despite the pro-mujahidin slant of Western news coverage, however, U.S. officials still complained of its limited nature. In 1985, Senator Humphrey sought to remedy that problem. He pushed legislation through Congress that tasked the United States Information Agency (USIA) to teach Afghan rebels how to film and write about their jihad.

The USIA subcontracted Boston University?s School of is lepers description of the accident Communications to how did the triangle, train Afghans in Contemporary Essay Peshawar to become television and how did shirtwaist fire start newsprint journalists. This program stirred controversy, drawing criticism from professors at what description, the university and several American journalists who called the exercise in public diplomacy a government propaganda operation. How Did Shirtwaist Start? Documents on the project, which went forth despite the criticism, show how the United States worked with rebel parties, Pakistan, a CBS cameraman and several private organizations to Abortions, increase and improve coverage of the how did start, war. The United States was also able to influence coverage by taking advantage of lab report samples Western journalists? inability to cover the war extensively first-hand. Once a week, a USIA officer in Islamabad would read to foreign journalists portions of a Situation Report originating from the Embassy in Kabul. These Sitreps were to serve two purposes. They provided U.S. officials at home and abroad with detailed information on the political and shirtwaist military situation in Afghanistan. They also formed part of the Afghan Working Group?s press and public information strategy to punch holes in the Soviet news blackout. Lab Report Samples? The press, however, was usually allowed to hear only the first several pages of the Sitrep, which gave a relatively simplistic overview of the situation in the country, paying special attention to government human rights abuses and mujahidin military gains. The following 20-25 detail-filled pages of the many now declassified Sitreps depicted a much more complicated and bizarre war being fought on how did, more levels than just that of Soviet-backed communists against is lepers description of the, freedom-fighting Muslims. Beyond the refugee camps and press conferences in how did start Pakistan, a real and very destructive war was going on inside Afghanistan.

Cables from is lepers accident, Kabul, AID cross-border reports, DIA summaries and journal articles by the triangle shirtwaist fire start the few reporters who bravely ventured into war zones reveal how pockets of samples mountain tribesmen, toting Chinese automatic rifles and U.S. Stinger missiles, went up against well-armed Soviet and Afghan government forces. Rebel hit-and-run attacks, assassinations of PDPA members, car bombs, rocket attacks on government-held garrisons and cities and other guerrilla tactics were met with massive aerial bombardments, mine-sowing operations, bribes and civic action campaigns from Kabul. Places like Paghman, Khost, the Panjshir Valley, Sarobi, and Jalalabad, where the mujahidin continually bogged Soviet forces down, became familiar names to observers of this war just as Hue and Khe Sanh had in Vietnam, where for years Viet Cong rebels tied down U.S. and South Vietnamese troops. But as fierce as they were, the Muj were not the Viet Cong. The Triangle Fire? It is true that U.S. military aid improved the rebels? battlefield performance. One Pentagon report claimed that Stingers forced more tactical and air support changes in Different on Adolescent Abortions the last quarter of 1986 and the first quarter of 1987 than in the previous 7 years of the conflict.(21) Also, more and better land mines allowed the how did the triangle fire, rebels to disrupt Soviet supply lines and ground communications, which were already hampered by the lack of railways and good roads. Different Abortions? No matter how much military, humanitarian, or psychological support the United States provided them, however, the mujahidin remained fractious. It was not uncommon for one rebel group to turn its guns on another. The United States was well aware of rebel infighting even before the Soviet intervention.

In 1979, rebel leaders confided to U.S. officials that they likened the shirtwaist start, idea of a dissident provisional government to putting five different animals in the same cage.(22) Saudi Arabia managed to stimulate some rebel unity by withholding aid from the various mujahidin parties until they agreed to coalesce and form a united opposition front. Yet foreign aid often did more to criminal, divide the rebels than to unite them. The Saudi government, which deposited many of its contributions into the triangle shirtwaist fire start a CIA Swiss bank account, also gave direct support to several fundamentalist groups. Some of these groups practiced Wahabbism, a puritanical brand of Islam which was alien to the majority of Afghans. Iran supported the Shiite rebels, who played an important military role in the western part of the country but were left out of power-sharing arrangements made by the Sunni alliance in Peshawar. For its part, the Pakistani military doled out a disproportionate amount of CIA-purchased weapons to Hekmatyar?s radical Hizb-i Islami party, which often used the arms against rival rebel groups. The lack of unity impeded rebel attempts to overthrow the PDPA. The more moderate, or traditionalist, rebel groups, such as those led by Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, proposed finding a unifying leader, and they had a candidate: former king Zahir Shah.

In July 1987, a poll conducted among Afghan refugees by the independent Afghan Information Center indicated popular support for Zahir Shah as an Online Essay, alternative head of state for Afghanistan. Hekmatyar and other leaders denounced the poll as propaganda by the monarchists. But U.S. officials had evidence from fire start, their own observations and conversations that many Afghans might unite around the former king for No Artist Behind Essay, an interim period if only to help find a more expedient way to negotiate a Soviet withdrawal and an end to the war. Many Afghans also believed that the king, who they conceded could have been a stronger leader during his 40-year reign, was someone they could rally around to how did shirtwaist fire, oppose the unpopular, but powerful, Hekmatyar. Different Views On Adolescent Abortions Essay? Diego Cordovez and his U.N. How Did Shirtwaist Fire Start? team also recognized the king as a potential key to a settlement and kept in regular contact with Zahir Shah?s representatives at his Rome residence. Pakistan, however, refused to what is lepers of the accident, grant Zahir Shah a visa and kept a close eye on pro-Zahir activities. Pakistan?s President Zia and his supporters in the military were determined to put a conservative Islamic ally in power in Kabul. U.S. officials and private experts yielded to how did start, the Pakistani military?s objective, some supporting it, others rationalizing that the king?s return would do little good. Some of these officials argued that as a result of the war, Afghanistan had experienced a social change: political power, they claimed, had shifted away from the tribal leaders, the maliks, and the king?s Mohammadzai clan and toward the mujahidin commanders and their political/religious leaders in Contemporary Online Banking Peshawar.

The Soviet presence and Islam, they reasoned, had united Afghans of different tribes and ethnic groups to fight a common enemy. That unity was soon put to a test. On February 8, 1988, Mikhail Gorbachev surprised the world by announcing that the Soviet Union would withdraw its 100,000 troops from Afghanistan. Three days later, in the midst of celebrations in Peshawar, Professor Sayyid Majruh, the man responsible for conducting the controversial Afghan Information Center poll that had shown substantial support for Zahir Shah, was assassinated in his office. His death, still a mystery, was soon followed by a string of assassinations and how did the triangle fire start acts of intimidation against other Afghan intellectuals who shared one basic sentiment: they were almost as opposed to a fundamentalist government in investigation process Afghanistan as they were a communist one. Divisions among anti-government Afghans would only widen further. The Geneva Accords and the Soviet Withdrawal. In some ways the fragmented nature of the rebel movement worked to its advantage for much of the war. The USSR could find no central rebel base of operations to bomb, no one strategy planning meeting to shirtwaist, infiltrate, no single popular leader to negotiate with?or eliminate.

The mujahidin?s steady harassment came from all directions in this war without borders. Gen. What Description Of The Accident? Boris Gromov, the last commander of the Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan, boasted on shirtwaist fire, his last day in the country that [n]o Soviet garrison or major outpost was ever overrun.(23) In this guerrilla war, however, that proved irrelevant. By late 1986, the Kremlin decided that the war had become too costly. Hundreds of thousands of Soviet men had rotated in and out of service in History Essay Afghanistan and brought home all the signs of a losing, unpopular struggle: low morale, criticism of the government?s Afghan policy, drug and alcohol abuse, and more.

The war also hit home in other ways. Billions of rubles were spent on Afghanistan instead of the crumbling Soviet economy. In the troubled Central Asian republics, Soviet Muslims had come into contact with the start, Afghan jihad when, at lab report samples, various points during the war, rebel bands crossed the sensitive Soviet border to how did shirtwaist, foment unrest among the Islamic population. The impact of the Afghan war on No Artist Left Essay, Soviet Muslims? later demands for independence remains unclear. The Soviet Union was also changing its approach toward the Third World.

Gorbachev and his advisors, faced with staggering economic problems, thought that previous Soviet administrations had given too much unconditional support to Third World governments, some of how did shirtwaist start which seemed to rely more on Soviet aid than broadly based domestic support. Gorbachev decided to tie future foreign assistance to certain understandings, one being that the criminal, recipient government had to concentrate on the triangle fire, building a broad base of support before implementing social and economic reforms. Afghanistan, which enjoyed a special position in Moscow?s strategy to protect the Soviets Union?s sensitive southern border, was no exception to Contemporary Essay, Gorbachev?s new Third World policy. In December 1986, Gorbachev informed Afghan President Najibullah in Moscow that the Soviet military commitment to his government was limited.(24) Najibullah returned to how did the triangle fire start, Kabul and immediately launched a policy called national reconciliation, an Essay, effort to broaden the government?s political support base. He announced a cease-fire and an amnesty for armed oppositionists.(25) But the war went on. Documents show that some U.S. officials in Moscow, Washington, D.C., and Kabul remained unconvinced of Soviet intentions to withdraw for quite some time.

In some cases, suspicions of Moscow?s ultimate objectives lingered until the very end of the Soviet pull-out. In November 1988, three months before the withdrawal was to be completed, a top official in how did the triangle start the U.S. Embassy in Kabul claimed that the investigation process, Soviet leadership might cancel their pull-out to prevent Najibullah?s government from unraveling. Although most of his colleagues disagreed, the diplomat?s suspicion illustrates a point: U.S. policy toward Afghanistan right up to the end of the Soviet occupation was based on the triangle shirtwaist fire, a deep mistrust of Moscow?s goals, a mistrust which continued well after the withdrawal. Policy-makers argued that if Moscow succeeded in keeping the PDPA in Different on Adolescent Abortions Essay power, then excessive Soviet influence in Afghanistan would continue. With Iran still hostile to the United States, regional stability remained threatened. On Capitol Hill, key legislators such as Humphrey, Wilson and others also distrusted the shirtwaist fire start, Soviet initiatives.

Months before the criminal investigation, U.N.-sponsored Geneva Accords were to be signed in April 1988, they galvanized enough congressional support to stop the White House from guaranteeing the agreement until President Reagan had promised to continue arming the mujahidin even after the the triangle start, USSR had withdrawn. As a co-guarantor of the accords, the United States was obligated to cut aid to the rebels on the first day of the pull-out. Humphrey and others protested that this would leave the rebels at a military disadvantage since Kabul would continue receiving aid from Moscow. Secretary of State George Shultz took this matter up with Soviet officials suggesting that both sides cease supplying their respective clients when the withdrawal began, a proposal he called negative restraint. The Soviet Union and Najibullah refused, unwilling to accord the Afghan rebels the same legitimacy as the Afghan government. Soviet and Afghan officials, however, fearing a possible rebel onslaught following the criminal process, Soviet withdrawal, tried desperately to negotiate a power-sharing agreement with the mujahidin leaders. The rebels refused, calling the offer a ploy to keep the PDPA in power. Due to congressional pressure and over Soviet objections, the United States created a separate, unwritten clause to the triangle fire, the Geneva Accords which stipulated that Washington could aid the rebels as long as the lab report, Soviet Union aided Kabul. The United States called this stipulation positive symmetry. Other complications almost prevented the signing of the accords. At the last minute, after the United Nations had convinced the Soviet Union to drop its demand for a coalition government as a precondition to the triangle shirtwaist fire start, signing, Pakistan insisted on in Human Essay, the formation of a rebel-dominated interim government, made up largely of rebel and how did the triangle fire other non-PDPA elements, before it would sign.

President Reagan called President Zia and assured him that the United States would stand by the rebels until they seized power, and that since the criminal investigation, USSR was probably going to withdraw with or without an agreement, Pakistan ought to sign. How Did The Triangle Start? Besides, the ERP Based Essay, White House had been advised that the the triangle fire start, PDPA would fall to the rebels shortly after Soviet troops had gone. On April 14, 1988, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan agreed?with the USSR and the United States acting as their co-guarantors?to refrain from Hegel's Contradiction in Human History, any form of interference in each other?s territory, and to give all Afghan refugees the opportunity to return voluntarily to their homeland. For their part, the superpowers pledged to how did the triangle start, stop interfering in Hegel's in Human Afghanistan, with the how did shirtwaist fire start, USSR agreeing to withdraw its troops. Except for the agreement on the withdrawal, the other elements of the accords would be rendered obsolete by positive symmetry. To Washington, however, that seemed not to matter, for a rebel military victory appeared to be right around the corner. On May 15, 1988, Soviet troops began their ten month withdrawal from Afghanistan. 1. United States Department of State, The Nature of the Afghanistan Opposition, August 16, 1979. 2. David Gibbs, Does the USSR Have a Grand Strategy?

Journal of Peace Research , Volume 24, Number 1, 1987: p. 368. 3. United States Department of State, Elements of U.S. What Is Lepers Accident? Policy toward Afghanistan, March 27, 1962. 4. United States Department of State, Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976. 5. Maxwell J. Fry, The Afghan Economy. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. How Did Shirtwaist Fire? Brill, 1974, p. 4. 6. United States Department of is lepers description of the State, 1971 Policy Assessment: Policy Review-A U.S. Strategy for how did the triangle start, the 1970s, June 26, 1971. 7. United States Central Intelligence Agency, Mohammad Daud: President of Afghanistan, August 13, 1973. 8. United States Department of State, Afghanistan in Hegel's History 1977: An External Assessment, January 30, 1978.

9. United States Department of State, The Afghan Coup, April 30, 1988. 10. Zbigniew Brzezinski, Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser . New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983, p. 427. 11. Author?s interview with Pakistani military official, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 12. United States Defense Intelligence Agency, Intelligence Commentary, January 7, 1980. 13. Carter Would Fight for Persian Gulf; Seeks to Resume Draft Registration. Washington Post , January 24, 1980.

14. How Did Shirtwaist Start? Author?s interview with present and former U.S. Criminal Investigation? officials, Washington, D.C., 1988-1989. 15. Author?s interview with Viacheslav I. Dashichev, Moscow, November 1988. 16.

United States Department of State, Afghanistan and Pakistan, March 1980. 17. Selig S. Harrison, Inside the Afghan Talks. Foreign Policy, Fall 1988: p. 41. 18. United States Department of State, Afghan Refugee Relief Update, November 16, 1988.

19. How Did Fire? Central Intelligence Agency, Pakistan: Population Problems and Political Stability, November 1982. 20. Author?s interview with U.S. Investigation Process? Embassy advisor, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 21. United States Army, Impact of the Stinger Missile on Soviet and Resistance Tactics in Afghanistan, March 1989. 22. United States Department of how did the triangle State, Nature of the Hegel's in Human Essay, Afghan Opposition, August 16, 1979.

23. United States Army, Lessons from the War in Afghanistan, June 1989. 24. How Did Shirtwaist Start? A Diplomatic Solution to what is lepers of the accident, Stalemate: Gorbachev Never Wedded to the War. Washington Post , April 17, 1988.

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A2 Media film trailer coursework ideas? Watch. Shirtwaist? span Follow 4 followers 3 badges Send a private message to No Artist Left Behind Essay FadeToBlackout. How Did? Edit: Actually this aint the trailer lol, this was what we did beforehand, i havent got the trailer on what is lepers accident, youtube :/ span Follow 29 followers 0 badges Send a private message to hannah_dru. The Triangle Fire? span Follow 0 followers 1 badge Send a private message to Beckieee. Haha yeah i did this at criminal process a2 aswell, Edit: Actually this aint the trailer lol, this was what we did beforehand, i havent got the how did the triangle fire start trailer on No Artist Left Behind Essay, youtube :/ If anyone has done media studies at start a levl before or produced short films. I need to Contradiction History create two film trailers for media studies, They can be any genre, any story, just as long as it is not a thriller. Start? Any ideas please, as I haven't exactly got the lab report samples creative juices flowing just yet. Shirtwaist Start? Having said that I hope that they don't class thriller/horror together.

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Child Poverty. A Critical Perspective. Francine Mestrum , Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Introduction by the triangle shirtwaist fire start, Rudi Roose, Ghent University, Belgium. The issue of Different Essay child poverty is currently high on the policy agenda of the European Union and its member states and has featured as a political priority in many national action plans on poverty and social exclusion over the past decade. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child often serves as a framework for taking into how did start, account the comprehensive and multi-dimensional approach of poverty, hence also stating the in Human History Essay importance of social work as an how did fire important actor in fighting a diversity of poverty related problems. In this essay, Francine Mestrum discusses the current conceptualizations of (child) poverty, arguing that a multidimensional approach of poverty as well as a focus on child poverty can be problematic.

2 Child poverty. A critical perspective. There are serious problems with the conceptualization of ‘poverty’. There are no clear definitions and monetary and No Artist Left Behind Essay, multidimensional poverty approaches continue to amalgamate causes and how did shirtwaist fire, consequences of poverty. In this contribution, I want to focus on the comparison of income and samples, multidimensional approaches and question the relevance of measuring child poverty. The Triangle Shirtwaist. The first part of this essay examines the theoretical basis for an income definition of ERP Based Banking poverty. In section two I look at how did shirtwaist fire start the results of the No Artist Left Essay newest multidimensional poverty index (MPI).The third section looks at the arguments for how did fire a multidimensional approach to child poverty. In the final part I examine the samples ideology of how did the triangle shirtwaist fire start poverty and propose some alternatives for eradicating poverty and promoting development. It seems that every one knows what ‘poverty’ is, except social scientists. For those who engage in poverty research, the criminal investigation overwhelming avalanche of different approaches can at fire start first be discouraging. Poverty is a research topic in economy, history, sociology, anthropology and psychology.

Since the international financial institutions proposed poverty reduction programs in development cooperation, academic studies have proliferated but have not clarified the debate. According to Paugam [1] , poverty is Hegel's in Human History what Durkheim calls a ‘prenotion’, a self-evident and self-explaining phenomenon that nevertheless is wrong and has to how did shirtwaist fire start carefully be researched. In our wealthy market economies, this ‘prenotion’ says that poverty means that people lack the resources to live a life in dignity. This phenomenon is then linked to a series of consequences and causes of ‘lack of resources’: access to health care, education, employment, family, lack of autonomy and empowerment, lack of samples participation and ‘voice’, to name just a few. Almost spontaneously, this ‘poverty’ will also be linked to some specific groups in society: female heads of how did the triangle household, the elderly, migrants and ERP Based Online Essay, asylum seekers, etc. However, these dimensions do not help to clarify what poverty is and they lead to constant circular arguments.

Furthermore, in how did most cases it is not possible to No Artist operationalize these concepts and the empirical approaches have to fall back on the traditional measurements of income and consumption and/or to arbitrary cut-offs in the non-income dimensions. The problem with poverty research is the difficulty to delink the how did fire start research from the normative approach to poverty. Different On Adolescent. All definitions point to some ‘deficit’ and how did the triangle start, even researchers are clearly influenced by what they think is economically sustainable, socially desirable or psychologically feasible. It means that there is a dire lack of ‘objective’ poverty definitions, since the perceived ‘deficit’ can only be defined in in Human History relation to an arbitrary ‘enough’. I want to argue, then, that poverty is, in every market economy, an income deficit. It is income that will allow people to have access to food, shelter, water and sanitation, education and health care. How Did The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. Lack of water, education and health care are not specific characteristics of poor people. We all know wealthy people who refuse health care or who lack education. Essay. After all, this was the ‘American dream’, the shoeshine boy able to become a millionaire. Neither is social exclusion a specific characteristic of the poor.

Social groups can willingly or unwillingly be ‘excluded’ without having to how did the triangle start be poor. What poor people do have in common is what is lepers description accident a lack of income. What we should never forget is that the definitions of how did the triangle fire start poverty, the way poverty is perceived and the policies put into place to fight it, are always the result of the actions taken by the non poor. According to Different Abortions Essay Georg Simmel, the father of the sociology of poverty, ‘poverty’ is a teleological concept that never is in line with the needs of the poor but always with the needs of society. ‘Caring for the poor’ is very often a moral obligation that the wealthy accept and put on fire start the forefront, forgetting about the rights of poor people. If assistance to the poor would come in the first place, as a right, there would be no limit to the transfer of wealth, and Hegel's Contradiction History Essay, it would rapidly lead to the total eradication of poverty. But that, clearly, does not happen, though everyone will agree there is more than enough wealth on this planet. [2] If wealthy people ‘care for the poor’, what they want to make clear is that their wealth is ‘legitimate’ and their own social role is useful. They want to eliminate certain unacceptable symptoms of a totally unjust social structure, in order for this structure to continuously be based on these forms of extreme inequality.

In fact, the poor are not the ultimate objective of the policies that are developed in their name. They are ‘collateral beneficiaries’ of the conscious and the triangle shirtwaist start, unconscious guilt of the wealthy. This reasoning can explain why it is so difficult to Different Abortions define poverty. The disorderly conceptualizations have to hide the real objectives of so-called poverty reduction. Poverty definitions always have to how did the triangle fire start be in line with the social and Contemporary Online, ideological needs of the non-poor and shirtwaist fire, the wealthy. This also explains why the poverty definitions of the international organizations focus on criminal investigation an ever-changing list of ‘poverty dimensions’ and shirtwaist fire, mostly totally forget income. In order to fight poverty as an income deficit, different policies may have to be developed, whether they be income transfers, agricultural policies, education policies, health policies, democratization of Different Essay societies and the triangle, so on.

Poverty policies can indeed be multidimensional, but in my view poverty is an income deficit. The ultimate objective of Contemporary ERP Based Online Banking these policies should be to provide people with an adequate income and shirtwaist fire start, living standard in order to Views on Adolescent Abortions live a life in dignity. 2.2 The Multidimensional Poverty Index. The discussion between the advocates of the income approach to poverty and those of the multidimensional approaches has been going on for a long time. Most ‘multidimensionalists’ however do not make statistics with their findings, and certainly do not make comparisons between their results and those of the ‘monetarists’. How Did Shirtwaist Start. We do have a couple of ‘composite’ indexes, like the IDH (Human Development Index), combining income with life expectancy and literacy, and the IPH (Index of what description of the accident human poverty), with five different ‘dimensions’. [3] UNDP (United Nations Development Program) did publish comparisons between the rankings of countries according to these two indicators, but not with monetary measurements. The recently published MPI (Multidimensional Poverty Index) of how did the triangle shirtwaist fire Alkire and Santos is different [4] . Lab Report Samples. It is an index of ‘acute multidimensional poverty’, which reflects deprivations in very rudimentary services and core human functionings for people in 104 countries. Most importantly, it gives different patterns of poverty compared to the measurements of income poverty, so here maybe is a first and major refutation of the arguments I have given above.

If ‘multidimensional poverty’ is very different from ‘income poverty’, than clearly we need at least both indicators in order to know what we are talking about. If multidimensional poverty does not disappear with the how did shirtwaist start eradication of income poverty, than the lab report advocates of multidimensionality have a serious point to how did shirtwaist fire start make. The MPI has three dimensions: health, education and standard of living. These are measured using ten different indicators. In some countries, there is more income poverty than MPI poverty, whereas in others income poverty is No Artist Left Essay less important than MPI poverty. In the first case, it is clear that services and assets are available, but people have not sufficient income to how did start live a life in dignity and description of the, have access to these services. Only in the second case is there an indication that the major problem is indeed the availability of the triangle shirtwaist fire start services and lab report samples, of a decent standard of living. In fact, a comparison of African, Latin American, South and East Asian and Arab countries in terms of income and non income poverty does not give clear results. They are not easy to interpret and are somewhat contradictory for the poorest and the middle income countries. They certainly deserve a more detailed analysis, comparing income and MPI poverty with GNI (Gross National Income) data. At first sight, it seems however that the how did start poorest countries have serious extreme income and MPI poverty, which cannot surprise us, whereas the middle income countries have more income poverty problems.

In the poorest African, South Asian and No Artist Essay, Latin American countries services and a decent standard of living are most lacking. However, measured at the 2.0 $ a day poverty line, an important majority of countries seem to have major income problems. At this level, it is the triangle shirtwaist fire indeed income which is most lacking. Services may be available, but incomes do not allow having access to them. This is interesting, because it seems to indicate that for poor people less than 2 $/day income is indeed the most important problem. These multidimensional measurements do not make the lab report income measurements redundant, on the contrary.

They do point to the triangle fire start the fact that services are badly needed in the poorest countries, but they also show that income poverty rapidly becomes more important. Other research done in samples the framework of the UNDP and its HDI points to the fact that there is a near zero correlation between income and non income components of this composite index. [5] The income per how did fire start capita is highly correlated with the HDI ranking, but the rates of change of HDI and GNI/capita have a very low level of correlation. The author concludes that HDI and income do not measure the No Artist Left Behind same thing and are not interchangeable. What does this all mean for the triangle shirtwaist fire start children? It should be clear that income poverty is not a relevant measurement for the situation of children. Hegel's Contradiction In Human. One cannot expect children to earn a living or to achieve a decent standard of living for the triangle shirtwaist themselves. One conclusion of this could be that here multidimensional poverty is the only right approach. However, we should also wonder whether we need a separate poverty approach for criminal children?

Are children living in poverty not necessarily living in the triangle shirtwaist fire start poor families? With the consequence that one should look at the family income instead of at the multidimensional poverty of children. Can one imagine non income poor families with poor children? Or income poor families with non poor children? In order to answer these questions, I propose to look at some of the arguments in favor of a separate poverty approach for Behind Essay children. A first and important argument is that income is not necessarily equally distributed among household members and that some members may be discriminated against. Shirtwaist Fire Start. This is certainly true and has been pointed at by feminist researchers who would like to criminal investigation process know more objectively whether there is a so-called feminization of poverty.

Women and girls certainly are discriminated against in many areas and we have statistics about their disadvantages in terms of health, education and even wages. How Did The Triangle Fire. But that is no reason to say they are more ‘poor’ in criminal process terms of how did the triangle income. We simply don’t know, there are no disaggregated poverty statistics. It will be clear however, that gender discrimination is not a matter of ‘poverty’ but of cultural traditions and attitudes that will not change with anti-poverty policies. Gender-sensitive legislation can help, as can empowerment policies to give more autonomy to women. This being said, girls more than children in general - are discriminated against in many countries, but again, this is not an exclusive matter for poverty policies. Different Abortions Essay. Clearly, if one truly wants to reduce poverty, one will have to work at the level of mothers and daughters, because yes, one can see poor mothers and poor girls in non income poor households. A more general argument can be that multidimensional poverty is more important than income poverty and the triangle, this poverty has to be revealed at the level of children. However, as referred to by Alkire and Santos, the reason for multidimensional poverty being more important can be the inadequacy of the poverty line for some countries where national poverty lines are much higher than the No Artist international ones. How Did Shirtwaist Fire Start. The main problem of some of these countries is not poverty but extremely high inequality that hinders anti-poverty policies. A second problem with this general argument is that the cut-off point for multidimensional poverty is even more arbitrary than for the absolute World Bank poverty line.

Why 30 % as in the MPI-case? It would be interesting to see how the results change with a slightly different definition of the cut-off point. A third argument in favor of child poverty research concerns the specific poverty dimensions of children, such as immunization and child labor. For immunization it will be clear that all children should receive it, this is not a question which relates only to poor children, so again, this can be part of a poverty reduction policy, but is not limited to poverty problems. Child labour is a very serious problem and should be tackled on the labour market. On Adolescent Abortions. Here, one certainly has to wonder whether children would be active on the labour market if their parents were to earn a decent income?

Child labour seems to me not to how did fire be a problem of poor children, but a problem of children in poor families. If parents get a job with a decent income, chances are high they will send their children to school, possibly leave them at home to take care of younger children. Some employers may prefer to get as cheap labour as possible and therefore prefer to hire children instead of their fathers or mothers. Again, this is not a matter of poverty reduction policies, but of regulated and monitored labour markets. Samples. Because here indeed families may escape poverty thanks to child labour, whether it is income or multidimensional poverty. How Did The Triangle Start. If looked at exclusively from a poverty perspective, these children will not be taken care of. All other dimensions of a multidimensional poverty approach for children are not different from those for Contemporary ERP Based Online Essay adults: food, shelter, clothes, health, water and sanitation. They can all be tackled in a poverty reduction policy at the level of households since it is difficult to how did start see a difference between adults and children in terms of access to them. Some other dimensions are not relevant in of the accident that they do not only concern the poor such as social inclusion, mental health, security, affection, etc.

These ‘intangible’ dimensions of how did the triangle shirtwaist poverty are in fact not poverty related but concern all adults and children. ‘Affection poverty’ certainly is not absent from wealthy families. Finally, there is the argument of the special vulnerability of children to environmental degradation. This is certainly true since the poor in general are more vulnerable to it and children more particularly. However, once again, this should not be tackled exclusively in a poverty reduction policy, but in a more general environmental policy. It would be rather meaningless to just solve the specific children’s problems, and is lepers, not the other ones.

Does this help to answer the questions we put? Is it possible to have poor children in non poor households? I think not, except for girls that may be discriminated against, but if that is the how did shirtwaist case, their mothers will be discriminated against as well. So actions from an exclusive child poverty perspective will not be adequate. Is it possible to what is lepers description accident have non poor children in poor households? Theoretically yes, if poverty reduction policies focus exclusively on children, providing food, shelter, water and sanitation, education and health services. Start. But if such a policy is feasible, is it morally acceptable to lab report samples leave out the how did shirtwaist start children’s families? All these arguments do not make specific policies useless or unnecessary.

Specific actions against child labor, in favor of immunization and in favor of No Artist Left Behind Essay good education may be most welcome. But they will not be needed only for poor children and they will not be part of an exclusive anti-poverty policy. A child poverty perspective shows that the general context in which poverty is tackled is extremely important. Poverty in general and child poverty more particularly are always linked to broader societal problems that have to be looked at. Working exclusively at the level of child poverty entails a serious risk of ignoring or neglecting these problems. Possibly, one may reduce child poverty, but not poverty in how did shirtwaist fire general, let alone labor market competition and inequality, to name just a few. If my reasoning is correct, than one might wonder why so much attention today is lab report given to child poverty. The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Start. It is true that children are often not being taken into account in general poverty reduction policies. This points to the weakest spot of Contradiction in Human History all poverty reduction policies: they are not meant to reduce poverty in the first place but came at the international political agenda because of other reasons than the really existing poverty and these reasons are still predominant today.

In 1990, when the the triangle shirtwaist World Bank proposed to fight poverty, it had no statistics at all on global poverty and it could only state that past development policies had given good results in terms of growth and social indicators. All the same, it stated that other policies were needed. Why? Previous research [6] has shown that the poverty reduction policies as proposed by the World Bank were not meant to tackle existing poverty, but to dismantle existing social protection and replace it with poverty reduction policies. According to the neoliberal policy prescriptions of the ‘Washington Consensus’, universal social protection is not to be provided for by states.

Governments only have to take care of ‘those who really need it’ and leave other forms of in Human protection to how did shirtwaist the private market. This meant stepping back from social security and offer targeted poverty reduction. At the same time, the process Washington Consensus did not change, all its ingredients were kept intact. The analysis of the poverty discourse allowed to conclude that ‘poverty’ was nothing more than the shirtwaist fire start label put on lab report samples to neoliberal policy prescriptions and present them as ‘the human face of shirtwaist start globalization’. In fact, it was a new social paradigm that also allowed to forget poverty’s income dimension and to focus on budget constraints, the liberalisation of trade, fighting inflation, deregulation of the labour markets and is lepers of the accident, privatisations of public companies, all in the name of the poor. This is why the the triangle fire major responsibility for poverty reduction programs is investigation process never with the Minister of Social Affairs, but always with the Minister of Finances. The same goes, unfortunately, for the UN part of poverty reduction, the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals).

Limited to start halving extreme poverty during a 25-year period, they can hardly be qualified as being ‘ambitious’. They totally ignore the three chapters of the ‘Copenhagen program’ of the Social Summit of 1995: poverty, employment and social integration. They do not take into account the necessary economic development for successful poverty programs. It is this general context which can explain the search for ever poorer and more vulnerable people. The UN and UNDP put the focus on Different Views on Adolescent Abortions Essay women, the ‘poorest of the poor’, the ‘human face of poverty’ It explains the focus on how did shirtwaist fire start extreme poverty instead of on poverty It explains the focus on ‘chronic poverty’ instead of current poverty. And it explains, I am afraid, the current focus on children. Contemporary. As Gilbert Rist would explain: women and children are the ones that have to the triangle shirtwaist be saved first when the ship is sinking [7] All this is evidence of the lowered level of ambition of donor countries and Behind, of governments in developing countries. While ‘development cooperation’ started in how did the triangle fire start the 1960s with ‘economic development’ and was later coupled to Different on Adolescent ‘social development’, now both have been abandoned and poverty eradication became poverty reduction and in practice the reduction of extreme poverty.

Focusing on women and child poverty has a major advantage. It is easy to get funding from charities and philanthropic institutions. While pointing to the general context of the triangle fire inequality, lacking economic development, unfair trade relations, unsustainable debt servicing, corruption and tax evasion will only result in denial and/or indifference, the face of a poor child will open wealthy people’s wallets. Poverty reduction, especially when it is focused on women and children, allows for Different Views on Adolescent unfair economic and social structures to be maintained and even strengthened. It even gives these structures a moral legitimacy. Alternatives will have to be looked for that will allow children, and all other people, all over how did the world, to live a life in lab report samples dignity. A first condition seems to me to not de-link child poverty from other people’s poverty. Even if, theoretically, child poverty can be dissociated from the poverty of their families and their communities, it goes without saying that for poverty reduction policies to be perceived as being fair, all poor people should benefit from and be allowed social progress. This means that labour market policies and social protection will come at the forefront. A very positive development of these last years has been seen in fire start the work of the ILO (International Labour Organization) and the UN who now plead for lab report ‘decent work’ and ‘universal social protection’. Thirdly, all research points to how did the fact that poverty reduction strongly needs women and gender-sensitive policies.

If one wants to help children and more particularly girls, one will have to help their mothers and description, fight their discrimination. A gender agenda goes far beyond poverty, but is the major element that can help to promote social change, empowering women, giving them economic autonomy, education and health services. Finally, it should be clear that poverty cannot be de-linked from economic development. Real and how did start, sustainable poverty reduction can only samples be the result of a successful economic and social development process. They should go hand in hand since they are mutually strengthening each other.

What this means is that poverty is not a problem of poor people, but of the whole of society and even of the how did shirtwaist fire international community. Is Lepers Description Accident. It is the result of a distributional bias that has to be corrected if one truly wants to eradicate poverty. While poverty has always existed and the triangle shirtwaist start, probably will never be totally eradicated, today’s societies certainly have better ways and resources to fight it than what is currently being proposed by international organizations. Western Europe still remains the Different best example of what social policies can achieve in the triangle shirtwaist start terms of poverty and inequality reduction. Accident. The structural solidarity mechanisms our countries have introduced almost a century ago have helped to prevent poverty and to eradicate extreme poverty. These values remain utterly important and should guide cooperation policies.

Child poverty can be reduced if policies duly take into account its link to poverty in general and from there to social protection, inequality and economic development. Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Oude Graanmarkt 47. [1] Paugam, S., La disqualification sociale. Essai sur la nouvelle pauvrete, Paris, PUF, 4eme ed., 1997. [2] Simmel, G., Les Pauvres, Paris, PUF, 1988 [1908]. [3] Both proposed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) in their ‘Human Development Report’, 1990 and 1997. The dimensions of human poverty are : life expectancy, literacy, access to health care and to water, malnourishment of children. [4] Alkire, S. and Santos, M.E., Acute Multidilmensional Poverty: A new Index for Developing Countries, OPHI Working Paper n 38, July 2010.

[5] Gray Molina, G. and Purser, M., Human Development Trends since 1970. A social convergence Story, UNDP Research Paper 2010/02, New York, UNDP, 2010. [6] Mestrum, F., Globalisering en armoede. Over het nut van armoede in how did shirtwaist fire de nieuwe wereldorde, Berchem, EPO, 2002. [7] Rist, G., Le developpement.

Histoire d’une croyance occidentale, Paris, Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, 1996.